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Oceanography Exam 1

Physical Oceanography

Age of the earth? 4.6 Billion Years
What is the Nebular Hypothesis? A sun exploded, blowing out gas & dust, thus creating the solar system.
What is Nuclear Fusion? Gravity pulls particles together after the sun explodes, heats them up and collects in the center.
What is the Giant Impact Hypothesis? A Mars-sized body collided with Earth and created our moon.
How long ago did life begin on Earth? 3.7 Billion years ago.
What did Earth's early atmosphere include? Nitrogen, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, and methane.
Who is James Cook? The Father of Oceanography
Who is Eratosthenes? Developed the first system of latitude and longitude.
What does latitude measure? North & South
What does longitude measure? East & West
Who is Matthew Fontaine Maury? First "Full-Time" Oceanographer
Who is John Harrison? Created the Number 4 Chronometer
Who is Fridtjof Nansen? First professor of Oceanography Captained the Fram Proved there was no northern continent
Who are Thomson & Murray? Captained the Challenger Expedition
Who is Ferdinand Magellan? First "Around the World" voyage
What is JOIDES? Joint Oceanographic Institute for Deep Earth Sampling
What is the Library of Alexandria? World's first University Held written knowledge of all kinds
What is the total water on Earth? 97.5% Salt Water 2.5% Fresh Water
What is the Deepest point in the ocean? Mariana Trench
How deep is the Challenger Deep? 36,163 ft
What is the mean land elevation? 2,800 ft
What is the mean depth of the sea? 12,500 ft
What are the three main layers of the earth based on composition? Crust, Mantle, Core
What are the five layers of the earth based on physical properties? Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, Mesosphere, Outer Core, Inner Core
Original Lines of Evidence of Continental Drift? Pangea ( fit of the continents ) same extinct species of plants/animals on separate continents same types of rock on separate continents past glaciation
Modern lines of evidence of continental drift? Seismic Activity Magnetic Structural: ridges & trenches Presence of hot spots Age of the seafloor
Convergent Plate Boundaries? Plates coming together
Convergent - Ocean v Continental Example Andes Mountains
Convergent - Ocean v Ocean Example Japan
Convergent - Continental v Continental Example Himalayas
Divergent Plate Boundaries? Plates pulling apart
Divergent - Continental v Continental Example East African Rift Valley
Divergent - Ocean v Ocean Example Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Transform Plate Boundaries? Plates sliding past each other
Transform Example San Andreas Fault
What is the Wilson Cycle? Explains the opening and closing of ocean basins
Stages of the Wilson Cycle? Embryonic - East African Rift Valley Juvenile - Red Sea Mature - Atlantic Ocean Declining - Pacific Ocean Terminal - Mediterranean Sea Suturing - Himalayas
How old is the oldest ocean crust? 180 million years
Where is the oldest ocean crust located? western Pacific
What is the most important driver of plate tectonics? Convection
What was the vessels name that traveled to the Challenger Deep? Trieste
Who traveled to the Challenger Deep? Walsh and Piccard
Florida Coast is shaped by? Underwater Currents
Oregon Coast is shaped by? Major river & Subduction
Texas coast is shaped by? Salt Domes
What creates Submarine Canyons? Underwater landslides & lower sea levels
What are Turbidites? turbid flows of sediment
What are turbidites triggered by? earthquakes storms volcanoes
What are Guyots? flat top seamounts that break sea level
What are Seamounts? non-flat top that never breaks sea level
Ichnology The study of tracks, trails, and burrows (both modern and ancient).
How do we sample ocean floor sediments? Clam Shell Scoop, Core Sample, Piston Core, Drill into the sea floor, Seismic Stratigraphy, Submarines, Divers
What are the states of Matter Solid, Liquid, Gas
Irving Langmuir Described plasma as a state of matter
Heat Energy produced by the vibration of atoms/molecules
Temperature The measure of how rapidly the molecules of a substance are vibrating
Calorie Energy necessary to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree celsius
Heat Capacity A measure of the heat required to raise temp of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius
What is Refraction? The bending of energy as it goes from one medium to another.
What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? How we break up different energies
Below ______m ocean water is about the _______ 2000 ; same
As salinity increases, density ______ increases
As temperature decreases, density _______ increases
Photic Zone 100-600m in clear water
Aphotic Zone no light > 600m
pH scale measure of acidity
pH of salt water 7.8 - 8.3
the bicarbonate ion keeps the pH of the oceans _______ constant
Equinox 3/20, 9/22, 923
Solstice 6/21, 6/22, 12/21, 12/22
What causes the seasons? tilt of earth's axis
Heat is transferred by? Conduction Radiation Convection
What is Convection? hot matter moves from one location to another.
Coriolis Effect an effect where a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation.
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
Vilhelm Bjerknes Named storm systems "fronts".
Antoine-laurent Lavoisier "discovered" water
Where do salts in the sea come from? Runoff from land Excess Volatiles Hydrothermal Vents @ Mid-Ocean Ridges
Forchhammers Principle of Constant Properties the proportions of the major salts in seawater stay about the same everywhere.
How do we measure salinity? Chemically Electric Salinometer Optical Salinometer Evaporation of water from a sample of seawater
How do hurricanes cause the most damage? Wind Rain Storm Surge Tornado
El Nino A period of climate change Trade winds slack and reverse direction
What happens in SoCal during El Nino? Rain & Flooding
What happens in South America during El Nino? Torrential Rainfall & Flooding
What happens in Asia during El Nino? Drought
La Nina trade winds become stronger than normal
What happens during a La Nina? Upwelling in South America East Pacific Countries experience intense droughts Number of Hurricanes increases
Ocean Gyres Rotates the ocean basins; North Atlantic South Atlantic North Pacific South Pacific Indian West Wind Drift
Ekman Spiral Shows direction of wind driven water motion and how it curves/varies with depth.
Currents in Atlantic Ocean Gulf Stream N. Atlantic Current Canary Current N. Equatorial Current Labrador Current
Currents in Pacific Ocean Kuroshio N. Pacific California N. Equatorial Alaska
Western Boundary Current Warm, Swift, Large, Narrow, Deep Gulf Stream, Kuroshio
Eastern Boundary Current Cold, Slow, Small, Shallow, Broad California, Canary
CCD The level below which calcium carbonate is dissolved (~4500m)
Langmuir Circulation consists of a series of shallow, slow, counter-rotating vortices at the ocean's surface aligned with the wind. These circulations are developed when wind blows steadily over the sea surface.
Windrows "lines of foam" air passing over water parts and then converges
Thermohaline Circulation Currents below the pycnocline Is responsible for overall global circulation of oceans
Global Conveyer Model Moving water & heat around earth's surface
Surface Water Surface to 660ft
Central Water 660ft ---> bottom of Thermocline
Intermediate Water Bottom of Thermocline ---> ~5000ft
Deep Water 5000ft ---> ~13000ft
Bottom Water 13000ft ---> Seafloor
Caballing two water masses with equal density combine to create a third water mass with a higher density
Specific Water Masses Antarctic Bottom Water North Atlantic Deep Water Antarctic Intermediate Water Mediterranean Water Pacific Deep Water
How do we measure currents? Drogue Garbage floating in the ocean SOFAR floats Ekman Flow meter Through-Hull Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Slocum Glider Acoustical Tomography
What makes waves? Wind Earthquakes Landslides Gravity
Deep Water Waves depth greater than half the wave length
Transitional Waves depth less than L/2 but greater than L/20
Shallow Waves depth less than L/20
Swell waves that have traveled out of the area where they were created
Tsunami's are formed from: earthquakes and underwater landslides
Causes of Tsunami's Earthquakes Meteorites Volcanoes Rockslides/Landslides
Lisbon, Portugal 1755 first time an earthquake and tsunami were associated with each other
Chile 1960 9.6 earthquake - largest recorded
Indonesia 2004 9.0 earthquake
Maelstrom Zone of rough water that circulates
Spring Tides Highest high tide and lowest low tide
Neap Tides weakest tides (first quarter moon)
Semidiurnal tides 2 equal high tides and 2 equal low tides over 24 hours
Diurnal tides 1 high tide and 1 low tide over 24 hours
Mixed tides 2 unequal high tides and 2 unequal low tides over 24 hours
Amphidromic Points points of canceling tides due to the coriolis effect.
Bay of Fundy Gulf of California Macrotidal Regime
Beaches the steeper the angle of the beach, the coarser the material on the beach
Rillmarks water draining back to the sea from beach face
Ripples flowing water
Swash marks pattern of 'v' shapes on the beach face due to sorting of grains with different densities.
2 types of coastlines emergent (erosional) submergent (depositional)
Emergent Coastlines sea cliffs sea caves sea arch sea stack exposed beach headland wave-cut platform
Submergent Coastlines bay sandspit barrier island lagoon bay mouth bar
Wave Dominated Delta Nile delta
River Dominated Delta Mississippi River
Tide Dominated Delta Colorado River, Ganges River
Diatoms produce ~80% of the air we breathe
Sources of CO2 burning & decaying of biomass respiration weathering of carbonate rock volcanic activity burning of fossil fuels
Sinks of CO2 burial of biomass photosynthesis deposition of carbonate sediments weathering of granite CO2 dissolves in seawater