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Developmental 1

Developmental Psychology Test 1

History of Childhood: Ancient Israelites-2000BCE-500BCE No evidence of infanticide among ancient Hebrews Children were “gifts from God Parents’ job was to love and educate child Discipline reflected respect for child Moses—saved by mother’s sacrifice
History of Childhood: Ancient Greece & Rome--200BCE-300CE Low survival rate Infanticide common Parents could sell child into slavery BUT raising of children was critical to society
History of Childhood: Medieval times--500CE-1400CE Birth not recorded High infant mortality; infanticide still practiced Children beaten and neglected Upper class infant separated from mother Infant was a small adult—could be hanged!
History of Childhood: Renaissance—1400CE-1500CE Child not valued because they lacked wit, strength, intelligence Childhood recognized as separate stage from adulthood Schooling for boys expanded under direction of church Written philosophies of child rearing emerged
History of Childhood: Reformation—1500CE-1600CE Concept of original sin supported harsh, restrictive child rearing Schools for boys established to socialize
History of Childhood: Period of Enlightenment--1650-1775 Jacques Rousseau, French philosopher child endowed with natural sense of right and wrong, rearing interfered with genetic maturational plan John Locke, British philosopher child was not born evil, tabula rasa; child shaped by rearing
History of Childhood: Industrial Revolution –1780-1900 Child actively contributed to family economic welfare in terrible conditions Family was important to raise children according to family’s beliefs and values Infancy emerged as separate stage from childhood
Scientific Study—late 19th century and early 20th century Baby biographers—late 1800s Normative period—early 1900 Measured physical and social characteristics of large number of children to find age-related averages Mental testing movement—early 1900 Identified children who would not be successful
Scientific Study—late 19th century: Charles Darwin, English Naturalist (1809-1882) Adaptive value of physical characteristics and behavior Prenatal development very similar between species Baby biography of his own child
Plasticity capacity for change in response to positive or negative life experiences Example: resilience; brain recovery Video on resilience
Discontinuous Child’s development explained in terms of a series of stages Abrupt changes result in a dramatic reorganization in how children perceive, think, feel, or behave
Continuous Characterized by gradual, steady, small quantitative advances New attainments in thinking, language, and social behavior
Active vs. Passive Children are active, determine how family and society treats them Children are passive, molded by family and society
Historical/sociocultural context of development Children grow up within a larger social community Historical/Sociocultural context: time and location of rearing The historical/sociocultural context includes unique customs, values, and beliefs
Dynamic tension reduction model(Freud) development results from tension between biological forces and environment
Goals in Development(Freud) Individual Survival Continuation of Species
Stages of psychosexual development(Freud) Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital Fixation if stages are not fulfilled
Erikson’s Psychoanalytic Theory Stages emerge when dictated by biological maturation and social demands Stage must be resolved successfully for satisfactory resolution at next stage
Sensitive period-Ethological Developmental Theory optimal time period where experiences have significant positive or negative effects on development and behavior.
Critical periods-Ethological Developmental Theory time period when organism is biologically prepared to display adaptive patterns of development if given the right input
Imprinting-Ethological Developmental Theory Imprinting—behavior occurs based on first experience geese following mother
Scheme/Schema (Piaget) Organized pattern of thought or behavior.
Organization (Piaget) Tendency for structures and processes to become more systematic and coherent.
Adaptation (Piaget) Interplay between assimilation and accommodation, resulting in development
Piaget’s Basic Principles Of Cognitive Development Assimilation: Person interprets new ideas or experiences to fit existing schemes. Accommodation: Person changes existing schemes to fit new ideas or experiences.
Classical conditioning: A neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes a reflexive response and eventually elicits the response by itself.
Operant conditioning: Organism produces a response which is rewarded, punished or ignored; the consequence influences the likelihood of future responding.
Social learning theory: Learning through observation and imitation of behaviors modeled by others
Bandura: Social Learning Theory Observational learning – learn through observing models Reinforcement or punishment of model affects learning Learning occurs even though it is not observable
Genotype genes that one inherits; makeup of actual genes of an individual (ex. Genes for blue eyes from both parents)
Phenotype one’s observable or measurable characteristics; how genotype is exhibited in individual (ex. Genes are one blue and one brown and the person has brown eyes)
Genomic Imprinting: Genetic transmission in which the phenotype depends on whether the gene is inherited from the mother or the father
Mitosis Process that takes place in most cells (somatic cells) of the human body and results in identical duplicate of 46 chromosomes in new cell
Meiosis Process that forms the gametes; results in 23 chromosomes in each human egg and 23 in each sperm cell (rather than the full 46)
Epigenetics: The field of study concerned with how environmental factors influence cell functioning and the phenotype (Ex. Diet of pregnant rat changes color of fur in offspring; offspring passes it on to their offspring)
Chromosomes Karyotypes – microscopic portrait of chromosome pairs 22 pairs are autosomes; similar in males and females (#1-22) 23rd pair are the sex chromosomes
Gametes Sperm cell in males, egg cell in females
Down syndrome During meiosis, a division error occurs on the 21st chromosome Trisomy 21--pair does not separate and the xygote has 3 chromosomes on the 21st pair Translocation—a piece of the 21st chromosome breaks and attaches to another pair
Phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot digest milk protein; resulting buildup of acid damages the nervous system; can be addressed by avoiding milk protein until middle childhood (Caucasian)
Tay Sachs Disease Disease—enzyme missing that causes fatty substances to build up in brain; nervous system destroyed (Ashkenazi Jews)
Sickle Cell Anemia sickle-shaped red blood cells clump and block vessels (African and regions with Malaria)
XYY syndrome extra y chromosome; unusually tall, some learning disability
XXX syndrome extra x chromosome; impaired verbal ability
Klinefelter’s syndrome (XXY) extra x chromosome in a male; tall with impaired verbal ability; incomplete sexual development
Turner syndrome (Xo) missing x chromosome; short stature; impaired spatial ability; incomplete sexual development
Amniocentesis: sampling of the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing fetus through insertion of a needle, used to diagnose fetal cells within fluid for genetic and developmental disorders Conducted 11th/14th week of pregnancy
Chorionic Villus Sampling Method of thin tube samples cells from the chorion, used to diagnose embryonic genetic and developmental disorders Conducted 8th/9th week of pregnancy
Fetal Blood Sampling Method of withdrawing blood from the umbilical cord of the fetus; used to diagnose genetic disorders, especially those that affect the blood
Fetoscopy tube with light inserted into uterus to examine physical defects; 15-18 weeks
Maternal Blood Screening Tests performed on a woman’s blood to determine whether the fetus she is carrying has an increased risk for some types of chromosomal and metabolic disorders.
Ultrasonography Method of using sound wave reflections to obtain a representation of the developing fetus; used to estimate gestational age and detect fetal physical abnormalities; 6th-14th week and later
Teratogens Agents that cause deviation in prenatal development e.g., alcohol, drugs, and diseases ⅔ of all birth defects occur in the first trimester
Syphilis Cannot cross placental barrier to fetus until 18th week Treatment of mother before week 18 prevents harm If untreated, damages eyes, ears, bone, heart, brain Can result in miscarriage and death
Genital Herpes Can cross placenta, but most infections occur during birth Caesarean delivery prevents infecting newborn Kills 33% of infected newborns Causes blindness, brain damage, and other neurological problems in 25-30%
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) Causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Virus passed to offspring through placenta in utero, while giving birth, or while breast-feeding 25% of those at risk are infected 50% of HIV infected infants live past 6 years
Principles of Teratology Different teratogens have similar effect on prenatal development Teratogens interfere with differentiation, migration, and other basic functions of cells (Ex. Alcohol). Some teratogens delay development temporarily, others may have “sleeper effects”
Thalidomide Used in Europe to prevent nausea and vomiting Tested on pregnant rats and was “safe” Caused birth defects (for some) if taken during first two months of pregnancy
Phocomelia parts of limbs missing, feet or hands connected to torso
PERIOD OF THE ZYGOTE: Blastocyst 60-80 cells Inner layer--Embryo Outer layer: Protective/nourishing tissues
Amnion watertight sac with amniotic fluid
Yolk sac early blood cell production
Chorion becomes lining of placenta
Allantois forms umbilical cord
PERIOD OF THE ZYGOTE: Implantation 7-10 days after conception Access to mother’s system through uterine wall Only 25% of zygotes successfully implant Chorionic villi form and burrow into uterine wall and placenta begins to form.
Placenta Support organ formed by cells from both blastocyst and uterine lining; serves as exchange site for oxygen, nutrients, and waste products. Blood cells are too large to pass
Umbilical Cord Conduit of blood vessels through which oxygen, nutrients, and waste products are transported between placenta and embryo
Amniotic Sac Fluid-filled, transparent protective membrane surrounding the fetus. Cushions against blows Temperature regulation Weightless environment for movement
PERIOD OF THE EMBRYO Ectoderm (outer layer) Nervous system; Skin; Hair Mesoderm (middle layer) Muscles; Bones; Circulatory system Endoderm (inner layer) Digestive system; Lungs; Urinary tract; Vital organs (pancreas, liver, etc.)
PERIOD OF THE FETUS: Third Month Digestive system and excretory systems functioning Reproductive system contains immature ova or sperm cells
PERIOD OF THE FETUS: Fourth-Sixth Months Movements – felt by mother Sucking, swallowing, breathing Vernix – protects skin from chapping Lanugo – fine hair helps vernix stick to skin Visual and auditory senses are functional
Prior to Birth- Brachystasis—mild contractions shorten muscle fibers in uterus Upper part of uterus becomes thicker with shortened muscle fibers Cervix becomes softer Effacement—thinning (flattening) of cervix
LABOR—First Stage of Childbirth Contractions begin at 10-20 minutes apart and last for 30-90 seconds Membranes rupture and fluid in front of head is released Cervix opens 1.2-1.5 cm/hour
DELIVERY OF INFANT—Second Stage of Childbirth Lasts around 90 minutes Head passes through cervix and infant emerges from body 97% of infants are head first 3% are feet, rump or shoulder first (breech birth)
DELIVERY OF PLACENTA— Third Stage of Childbirth Lasts a 5-30 minutes Placenta detachs from uterus and is expelled from body Placenta checked for breaks or tears Breastfeeding immediately assists contractions
LABOR AND DELIVERY MEDICATION Some medication used by 95% of mothers Reduce pain, induce contractions, relax the mother
Pitocin (synthetic oxytocin) ) may be administered in labor to strengthen contractions
Labor analgesia Sedatives, analgesics
Childbirth anesthesia General anesthesia-not used typically Regional blocks Epidural – reduces pain to the lower part of the body via a combination of narcotics and anesthesia Spiral block – anesthesia delivered directly to the spinal cord
Baby’s Appearance 20 inches long, 7-7.5 pounds, bluish, head a bit misshapen
Assessing the Baby’s Condition Apgar test developed by Virginia Apgar Taken at 1 and 5 minutes Heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, color, reflex irritability Scored 0-10 (0-2 each) 7+ good, 4 and lower needs attention
NEWBORN EXPERIENCE Shortly after birth, infant is alert and looking around Some vernix covers skin and is cleaned off Ready to use reflexes and will suck at birth
MOTHER’S EXPERIENCE SURROUNDING BIRTH First 6-12 hours – sensitive period for emotional bonding through contact with infant Emotion Maternity blues – 40-60% of mothers Postpartum depression – 10% of mothers
Breastfeeding—Effects on Mother Uterus contracts, lessening risk of hemorrhage Calories burned—20 calories/ounce milk Delayed fertility Lower incidence of breast cancer
Breastfeeding—Effects on Infant Bacterial growth less likely Immunities Allergies less common Antibodies may inhibit HIV Digestability Tooth and jaw development Brain development SIDS lower
Created by: jacob406