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Pharm Terms ch4

TermDefinition
Pharmacokinetics study of drug movement throughout the body
Absorption movement of a substance from its site of administration across body membranes
Dissolution rate that determines how quickly the drug disintegrates and disperses into simpler forms
Distribution transport of drugs throughout the body
Affinity attraction, for certain meds; bone marrow, teeth, eyes, and fat tissue have a high attraction.
Drug-protein complexes too large to cross capillary membranes and not available for distribution to body tissues
Blood-brain barrier prevents chemicals and meds from entering brain
Fecal-placental barrier prevents chemicals and meds from entering the placenta
Metabolism also called biotransformation, process of chemically converting a drug to a form that is more easily removed from the body
Conjugates side chains during metabolism, makes drugs more water soluble and more easily excreted by the kidneys
Hepatic microsomal enzyme system metabolism in the liver is accomplished by this
Enzyme induction ability to increase metabolic activity in the liver
Pharmacogenomics the study of genetic variations that influence an individual's response to drug therapy
First-pass effect important mechanism since a large # of drugs are rendered inactive by hepatic metabolic reactions (sublingual, rectal, parenteral bypass it)
Prodrugs have no pharmacologic activity unless they are first metabolized to their active form by the body
Excretion drugs removed from body by this process
Enterohepatic recirculation bile circulated back to the liver by this
Minimum effective concentration amt of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect
Toxic concentration level of drug that will result in serious adverse effects
Therapeutic range plasma drug concentration between the minimum effective concentration and the toxic concentration
Onset of drug action the amt of time it takes to produce a therapeutic effect after drug administration
Peak plasma level occurs when the medication has reached its highest concentration in the bloodstream
Duration of drug action amt of time a drug maintains its therapeutic effect
Plasma half-life length of time required for the plasma concentration of a medication to decrease by one-half
Loading dose higher amt of drug, often given only once or twice to "prime" the bloodstream with a sufficient level of drug
Maintenance doses given to keep the plasma drug concentration in the therapeutic range
 

 



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