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Ch1: History/Science

QuestionAnswer
What is a basic study? Give an example. Research for the sake of gaining scientific knowledge. Ex. A scientist might want to know how many memories a person can hold at a given time
What is an applied study? Give an example. Uses findings from psychological research to solve real world problems. Ex. A scientist might take research from a basic study to find a new and better way for students to study
What is a clinical study? Give an example. Studies phycological and mental disorders. Ex. A clinical trial in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
Psychiatrist v. Psychologist Psychiatrists have a medical degree and specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Psychologist has no medical training, but has a doctorate degree.
What are the 4 goals of psychology? - Description: What is happening? - Explanation: Why is it happening? What is the reason? - Prediction: When will it happen again? Or WILL it happen again? - Control: How can it be changed?
Define structuralism. Who was a structuralist? The focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind. Wilhem Wundt
Define functionalism. Who was a functionalist? The focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play. What you do rather than what you’re made of. William James
Talk about Sigmund Freud. ‘father’ of mental disorders. Began to explore the mind and nervous disorders. Stressed the importance of early childhood experiences.
Talk about BF Skinner. Believed you could predict behavior based on your past. Behaviorist. Studied only observable and measurable behavior.
Talk about Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov effect; the dogs salivating, Dwight and jim. Focused on observable behavior
Talk about Wilhem Wundt. Structuralistm. Objective introspection (examining and measuring thoughts and mental activities). Had the first psychology lab.
What is Gestault Psychology, and who was involved with it? Focuses on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures. Max Wertheimer.
What is psychoanalysis, and who was involved with it? Therapy that tried to reveal unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires that are assumed to cause disordered emotions and behaviors. Sigmund Freud.
What is behaviorism, and who was involved with it? Focuses on observable behavior only. Must be directly seen and measured. Phobias are learned. John Watson and BF Skinner.
Psychodynamic perspective: Focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior.
Humanistic Perspective: aims at self-understanding and self-improvement. People have their own free will and can choose their destiny. Abraham Maslow, and Carl Rogers.
Cognitive Perspective focuses on learning, memory, thought processes, etc. Things in the brain. Studies the changes in the brain during thinking.
Sociocultural perspective: Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture.
Bio-psychological perspective: Behavior is linked to biological events such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system.
Evolutionary perspective: Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share. Looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does. Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value. (Darwin)
Positive v. Negative correlation Positive correlation is as one increases, the other increases, and decreases/decreases. Negative correlation, in the opposite direction.
Perfect v. No correlation Closer to the ones, the stronger the relationship. No correlation is 0, perfect correlation is +/- 1.
What should you be careful of in naturalistic observation? The placebo effect, and biases of what you expect to see
Give an example of a case study HM, Phineas Gage
What are some benefits to animal research? Shorter life span, can easily control the environment, selective breeding
Created by: sara_hillyer