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The Brain

TermDefinition
Gilia Support neurons
Neuron Individual cells and the smallest unit of the nervous system
Cell body (soma) Contains neuron's nucleus where metabolism takes place
Dendrites Short fibers that extend from the soma and pick up incoming messages
Axon Long fiber extending out from the soma. Carries out long messages.
Myelin Sheath White fatty covering found on some axons that act as insulation
Terminal buttons Small knobs that secrete neurotransmitters located on the axon terminal
Nerves Group of axons bundled together - neurons that send messages to the brain
Afferent / sensory neurons Neurons that send messages to the brain
Efferent or motor neurons Neurons that send messages from the brain or spinal chord to muscles or glands
Interneurons Neurons that carry messages from one neuron to another (99% of neurons)
Mirror neurons Observation of an action that automatically triggers simulation of that action
2 ways neurons terminated Broken down by other chemicals or recycled / reabsorbed into axon chemicals to be reused
Slowing / stop of release of neurotransmitter into synaptic space Curare causing botulism prevents release of ACh and causes paralysis and death
Speeding up of release of neurotransmitter into synaptic space Black widow toxin rises levels of ACh and causes spasms and tremors
Prevent reabsorption of neurotransmitters Cocaine blocks the reusing of dopamine
Pre-synaptic Sending neurotransmitters
Post-synaptic Receiving neurotransmitters
ACh (Acetylcholine) Enables muscle action (Excitatory). Alzheimer's disease (undersupply)
Dopamine Influences movement, attention, emotion, pleasure (Inhibitory) Schizophrenia (Excess), Parkinson's and tremors (limited)
Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, sleep onset, arousal (Inhibitory) Depression (undersupply) - Prozac / antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels
Norepinephrine Controls alertness and arousal (Excitatory) Depression and mood change (undersupply)
GABA Decreases anxiety (Inhibitory) Seizures, tremors, insomnia (undersupply)
Glutamate Involved in memory (Excitatory) Migraines - overstimulates brain (oversupply)
Endorphins Inhibits transmissions of pain messages (can help lower pain if too much)
Peripheral Nervous system - relating to rest of body (not brain / spinal chord)
Brain and spinal chord Nervous system - its core
Somatic Nervous system - voluntary movement, controls skeletal (striped or striated) muscles
Autonomic Nervous system - involuntary movement
Sympathetic Nervous system - threat - fight or flight response
Parasympathetic Nervous system - no threat - calming
All or not law Rule that says either neuron fires fully or it doesn't at all
Resting potential Cell's negative charge when neuron is inactive (more Cl- ions than K+ / Na+) - cell is polarized
Action potential A brief change in the neuron's electrical charge (depolarization) when cell reaches the threshold of excitation. Minimum # of impulses from neighboring neurons that cause cell to fire
Absolute refractory period Minimum length of time after action potential before another can begin - takes 1/2 milliseconds before sodium gates can be reopened
Agonist Binds directly on receptor site
Antagonist Blocks the receptor site
Curare Toxin used by South American natives to tip spears - blocks ACh receptors - causes paralysis / death
Resting potential Cell's negative charge when neuron is inactive (more Cl- ions than K+ / Na+) - cell is polarized
Action potential A brief change in the neuron's electrical charge (depolarization) when cell reaches the threshold of excitation. Minimum # of impulses from neighboring neurons that cause cell to fire
Absolute refractory period Minimum length of time after action potential before another can begin - takes 1/2 milliseconds before sodium gates can be reopened
Agonist Binds directly on receptor site
Antagonist Blocks the receptor site
Curare Toxin used by South American natives to tip spears - blocks ACh receptors - causes paralysis / death
Clinical observation Oldest method of studying brain-mind connections is to observe effects of brain diseases and injuries
Lesioning Destroys a piece of the brain with a stereotaxic instrument - device used to implant electrodes at precise areas in brain to determine brain-behavior relationships
Electrical stimulation Involves sending weak current into brain structure to activate it, and can determine brain-behavior relationships
Electroencephalograph (EEG) Monitors electrical activity of brain over time - records electrodes attached to surface of scalp, and can be used in clinical diagnosis of brain damage / neurological disorders and used in research
Computerized tomography (CAT) Computer-enhanced X ray of brain that can be used to look for abnormalities in brain structure among people suffering specific types of mental illness
Positron Emission Topography (PET) Monitors brain’s activity over time through radioactively labeled glucose that can pinpoint areas of brain that handle various activities, and study effect of specific neurotransmitters
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic fields, radio waves, computer enhancement to view brain structure (best detail of soft tissues and fluid filled areas)
Functional MRI Monitors blood and oxygen flow to brain to identify high activity - shows both structural and functional info in same image, monitors changes of brain in real time
Medulla Used for unconscious functions - breathing, maintaining muscle tone, heartbeat and circulation
Reticular formation Fibers carrying stimulation (sleep / arousal) through brainstem. Used for muscle reflex, breathing, and pain perception, and sleep/wakefulness - damage causes coma
Thalamus Relays sensory information except smell
Cerebellum Coordinates muscle movement, balance, sense of equilibrium
Limbic system Regulates memory, emotion, and motivation
Amygdala Used for emotions, especially fear and aggression
Hippocampus Used for learning and memory
Hypothalamus Regulates biological needs like hunger, thirst, and temp control. Controls the endocrine system by activating pituitary gland
Cerebrum Used for thinking, learning, sensing, consciousness, and voluntary movement (newest in evolution)
Cerebral cortex Convoluted outer layer of cerebrum
Corpus callosum Used to pass information between two cerebral hemispheres through fibers
Pituitary gland Regulates other endocrine glands by sending hormones stimulating actions in other glands, called master gland - controlled by hypothalamus
Pons Regulates sleep and arousal
Spinal cord Used to transmit information between brain and rest of body - handles reflexes
Frontal lobe Lobe used as motor area, for reasoning, planning, organizing, and language (HIGHER THOUGHT)
Temporal lobe Lobe used as auditory cortex (hearing, understanding language)
Parietal lobe Lobe used as somatosensory (sense of touch) cortex
Occipital Lobe used as visual cortex - sent and processed
Right side of brain Hemisphere of brain used for visual and spatial tasks (controls left side of brain)
Left side of brain Hemisphere of brain used for language process (controls right side of body)
Broca's area Area of brain (left hemisphere) used for production of speech
Wernicke's area Area of brain (left hemisphere) used for understanding language
Split brain studies Procedure when corpus callosum is severed (object on left field of view sends signal to right side, not able to be described in words)
Endocrine system Body system consisting of glands that send chemicals to bloodstream to control bodily functions
Hormones Chemicals often released by endocrine glands (Ex: adrenaline, estrogen, testosterone)
Chromosomes Consist of DNA and protein, regular humans have 23
Turner's syndrome Disability formed by having no Y chromosome - sterile women with no ovaries, little development of sex characteristics
Klinefelter's syndrome Disability formed by having a Y chromosome, and 2 or more X chromosomes - sterile men with female characteristics
Homozygous When two genes in a pair are the same
Heterozygous When two genes in a pair are different
Genotype Consists of organism's genes, which never change
Phenotype Consists of organism's characteristics, which can change as one ages
Plasticity Idea that structure and function of brain are more malleable than we thought
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Procedure where magnetic coil sends magnetic field 2 cm deep which allows for virtual temporary lesions
Created by: uriel_magana