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Equip ch 1,2,6,7,9

S1 Unit1 SJ Hooi

Air Kerma Kinetic energy released in matter Gray "Gy"(a) measured in Joules per kilogram 1J/kg = 1Gy the kinetic energy transferred from photons to electrons during ionization and excitation.
Absorbed Dose Radiation energy absorbed per unit mass Units of J/kg or Gy(t)
Sievert Occupational and general population dose measurement.
Which of the following is a property of x-ray photons? a) can be focused by a lens b) travels different speeds according to kVp c) electrically neutral d) all of the above e) only b) and c) e) only b) and c) b) travels different speeds according to kVp c) electrically neutral
Sources of Radiation in an X-ray room: Radiation that exits the anatomy to strike the image receptor • Image Forming •Exit Radiation •Remnant Radiation
What is the electric charge of a stable atom? Neutral
Chart that organizes the elements in a meaningful way Periodic table of elements
Radioactivity is the emission of particles from _________ the nucleus
_______ are the true energy rays radiated by radioactive elements. Gamma rays
An atom with a negative charge is called a(n) ________ Ion
Newton's first law of motion "Law of Inertia" An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
True or False: Because the Moon has less gravity than Earth, you would have less mass standing on the Moon than on Earth. False, your MASS remains the same. You have less WEIGHT on the moon as a result of less gravity acting on your mass. Weight = mass x gravity Mass = quantity of matter
What is the maximum number of electrons that can fit in the outermost shell of any atom? 8
Octet Rule A rule stating that atoms lose, gain, or share electrons in order to have a full valence shell of 8 electrons. (Hydrogen is excluded because it can hold a maximum of 2 electrons in its valence shell.)
What happens when a positive ion comes near a negative ion? They attract each other. Opposite charges attract, similar charges repel.
Elements in the same group (column) of the Periodic Table have what in common? The same number of electrons in the valence shell
What part of the atom changes immediately when a radioactive atom decays? The nucleus
Name three subatomic particles: •Proton •Neutron •Electron
What is the equation for Momentum? Momentum = Mass x Velocity
What must be applied to mass to cause it to accelerate? Force
The ability to do work is called _______ Energy
Matter is the substance of which of the following? •Solids •Liquids •Gasses All of the above. Matter is anything that occupies space (atoms, molecules etc)
Inertia occurs when ________ •Mass is moving in a straight line •Mass is not moving •Mass moves in a circle All of the above. Inertia is Newton's first law of motion.
True or False: Energy can be created from nothing but only in very special circumstances False The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed in a closed system.
True or False: One amount of energy can do an infinite amount of work False Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be transformed into a different form. (light-> heat, electric -> light, etc)
True or False: You weigh less after exercise because you transformed some of your mass into energy False Mass cannot be transformed into energy. Mass can have energy and do work, but it does not become energy.
True or False: Energy can be transformed from one form to another True Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be transformed into a different form. (light-> heat, electric -> light, etc)
Define heat Thermal Energy: result of the motion of atoms and molecules. Total internal kinetic and potential energy of an object due to the motion of its atoms and molecules.
When someone pushes a boulder to the top of a mountain •Muscular energy becomes momentum which ends as work •Muscular energy becomes kinetic energy which ends as potential energy •Muscular energy performs work which ends as kinetic energy •Muscular energy becomes kinetic energy which ends as potential energy
When energy is transferred through space/matter it is called _______ Radiation
What ar particles of radiation known as? Photons and/or Quanta
Radiation that changes direction as it traverses through the anatomy Scatter radiation
Do higher frequency x-rays have more or less energy than lower frequency x-rays? More energy. The higher the frequency, the higher the energy (gamma rays) the lower the frequency, the lower the energy (radio waves).
Bremsstrahlung Interaction As the projectile electron passes by the nucleus, it is slowed down and changes its course, leaving with reduced kinetic energy in a different direction. This loss of kinetic energy reappears as an x-ray. "Slowed down radiation"
Adding more filtration to the x-ray beam reduces the number of x-ray photons in the beam. Does more filtration •increase •decrease the average energy of the x-ray photons that are not filtered out? •increase Added filtration more effectively absorbs low-energy x-rays. Adding filtration is sometimes called hardening the x-ray beam because of the relative increase in average energy.
Compton and Classical scattering cause what undesirable characteristic on an x-ray image? Fog
What kinds of x-ray interactions ionize atoms in the body? •Photoelectric interaction •Compton scatter
Why do the x-rays used in radiography not cause pair production? The energy level is too low, they do not penetrate atoms to the nucleus.
What kind of electromagnetic radiation travels the fastest? •Light •Gamma rays •X-rays All of the above
True or False? x-rays originate from the nucleus and gamma rays originate from the electron False
True or False? x-rays originate from the electron and gamma rays originate from the nucleus True
True or False? Both x-rays and gamma rays originate from the nucleus False
True or False? Both x-rays and gamma rays originate from the electron False
Which of the following is false? All matter has •Inertia •Mass •Resting Energy •Kinetic energy •Kinetic energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Not all matter is moving at all times.
What is the property of an object that allows it to resist a change in its state of motion? Inertia
Acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the amount of _________ Force applied
Force = Mass x __________ Acceleration
Work = Force x __________ Distance
What type of energy does a rock rolling down the street have? Kinetic energy
Atomic number Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
The instantaneous production of light only during an interaction between a type of energy and some element or compound •Phosphorescence •Glowing •Fluorescence •Afterglow •Fluorescence
_________ is the phenomenon that occurs around the filament during thermionic emission and prevents the further escape of electrons from the filament Space Charge Effect
The electrical energy applied to an x-ray tube will be transformed into what? Heat and x-rays
x-rays can: •penetrate the human body •be absorbed by the human body •change direction in the human body •none of the above •all of the above All of the above
What is the fixed physical area of the anode that is struck by the electron stream? Focal spot
What is the name of the device that turns the rotor? Stator
What focal spot size is measured directly under the anode target? Effective focal spot
The larger the anode angle, the _________ the effective focal spot. Larger
Increasing kVp __________ penetrability of the beam and ________ the speed of electrons. increases, increases
Filtration of the beam results in ________ beam quality. Increased
What kind of filtration produces a more uniform exposure to the image receptor? Compensating filtration
Atoms and molecules are the fundamental building blocks of _______ Matter
The purpose of protective filtration is to ___________. Absorb low energy x-rays
A device that receives the radiation leaving the patient Image receptor
_________ is the loss of some energy from the x-ray beam as it passes through the tissue being imaged. Attenuation
A positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons in well-defined orbits is the _______ model of the atom Bohr
What is the formula to calculate the maximum number of electrons that can exist in an electron shell? 2n^2 2(n squared)
What is a simple substance? Element
Radioactivity is the emission of particles and energy from the ______ nucleus
Electrical energy is the result of moving _______ electrons
The amount of energy needed to break apart the nucleus of an atom is called _____ Binding energy Binding energy is the strength of attachment of an electron to the nucleus. (p33 in Bushong)
What are the two forces responsible for maintaining the electron's position and motion in it's orbit? Centrifugal force and Centripetal force
What is centrifugal force? "flying-out-from-the-center force" An object traveling in a circle behaves as if it is experiencing an outward force. Think of that carnival ride where you spin around and become pressed against the walls so hard that you can stand sideways.
What is centripetal force? "center-seeking force" A force that acts on a body moving in a circular path and is directed toward the center around which the body is moving.
How is voltage measured in X-ray? X-ray voltages are measured in kilovolt peak (kVp). One kilovolt (kV) is equal to 1000 V of electric potential.
How is current measured in X-ray? X-ray currents are measured in milliampere (mA), where the ampere (A) is a measure of electric current. The prefix milli stands for 1/1000 or 0.001.
Line focus principle By angling the target, one makes the effective area of the target much smaller than the actual area of electron interaction.
What is a benefit of the line focus principle? The angle of the target allows for more heat dissipation while reducing the effective focal spot, increasing spatial resolution.
What is a disadvantage of the line focus principle? The Anode Heel Effect. The steeper the angle of the target, the more pronounced the variation in intensity.
What is the Anode Heel (AH) Effect? A variation in the intensity of the effective beam. The cathode side is more intense than the anode side.
What is off-focus radiation? Electrons bounce off the focal spot and land on other areas of the target. •extends the size of the focal spot •increases skin dose •reduces image contrast
Atomic Number Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Mass The number of protons AND neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Isotopes Atoms with the same atomic number that have different atomic mass
What is characteristic radiation? Characteristic x-rays are emitted when an outer-shell electron fills an inner-shell void.
Isotropic radiation/scatter emitted with equal intensity in all directions
Created by: paigeduh