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# Psychology Unit 2

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Hindsight Bias | The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it. (AKA the I-Knew-It-All-Along phenomenon) |

Critical Thinking | Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments or conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions |

Theory | An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors of events |

Hypothesis | A testable prediction often implied by a theory |

Population | All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn |

Random Sample | A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion |

Naturalistic Observation | Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation |

Correlation | A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other |

Debriefing | The post experimental explanation of a study; including its purpose and any description, to its participants |

Informed Consent | An ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate |

Culture | The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next |

Statistical Significance | A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance |

Normal Curve | A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes |

Standard Deviation | A completed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score |

Range | The difference between the highest and lowest scores of the distribution |

Median | The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half below it |

Mean | The arithmetic average of a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores |

Mode | The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution |

Dependent Variable | The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable |

Cofounding Variable | A factor other than the independent variable that might produce and effect in an experiment |

Independent Variable | The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable that might produce an effect in the experiment |