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PS: Ch 3

Ch 3

question or termAnswer or Definition
Physical substance of the universe matter
All matter is made up of extremely small particles called atoms
the basic functional units of matter molecules
Provides the bases for the scientific understanding of all matter atomic theory of matter
Who is given credit for the atomic theory of matter John Dalton
Theory that explains molecular motion Kinetic theory of matter
Who is given credit for the kinetic theory of matter James Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann
Two fundamental rules of the kinetic theory of matter 1- all molecules are in constant motion 2 - the warmer and object is the faster its molecules move
the attraction between same substances that holds them together cohesion
the faster atoms are moving, the (more or less) cohesion they have less
Cohesion keeps the molecules of a solid __?__ in __?__ positions vibrating; fixed
A substance with the ability to flow liquid
The molecules of a liquid are able to move __?__ but remain fairly __?__ to one another freely; close
gas molecules move around __?__ and are only stopped by things they __?__ rapidly; hit or strike
The random motion of microscopic particles is known as __?__ Brownian motion
Brownian motion is the result of ... collisions between the microscopic solid particles and molecules of a liquid
True/False: only microscopic particles exhibit Brownian motion True
The process of mixing molecules of 1 substance with another substance by random molecular motion Diffusion
Diffusion always occurs from __?__ to __?__ higher to lower
A membrane that allows some substances to diffuse through them but not other substances is known as semipermeable
A one-way diffusion process osmosis
__?__ is a very important process in living things osmosis
Two classifications of a solid crystalline and amorphous
Type of solid that has an ordered arrangement crystalline
crystalline's have a well defined ... boiling point
Solid that is without form and has not pattern Amorphous
True/False: Amorphous solids do have a specific melting point False; (they do NOT have specific melting points)
Amorphous solids tend to __?__ over a range of temperatures soften
A change in shape when a force moves the stationary molecules deformation
The ability of a solid to recover its original shape after being deformed Elasticity
Two aspects of elasticity that is measured Resilience and Rigidity
how far a material can be deformed from its original shape before the deformation becomes permanent Resilience
how strongly a material opposes deformation Rigidity
a substance with high rigidity will deform (very little, a lot) under ordinary forces very little
the maximum amount of permanent deformation a material will undergo without breaking Plasticity
Plasticity can increase by... heating
the resistance of a material to certain types of small deformations hardness
To types of hardness scales Mohs scale and Brinell hardness
What type of hardness scale measures a materials ability to scratch or scratch resistance Mohs scale
What type of hardness scale measures a materials ability to be dented by a hard ball Brinell hardness
What are the 5 types of deformations stretching, compression, bending, shearing, and torsion
What type of deformation deals with the amount an object is pulled apart but can still return to its original positions Stretching
What law expresses that a certain amount of force is needed to produce a particular amount of deformation Hooke's law
True/False: Hooke's law is only valid for large amounts of stretching False (Hooke's law is only valid for SMALL amounts of stretching
Type of deformation where forces are pushing in on a material Compression
Type of deformation that results when one side is being stretched and the other side is being compresed Bending
Type of deformation where two forces travel in opposite directions side by side Shear
Type of deformation where twisting of an object occurs Torsion
Attraction to molecules of the same type is cohesion
attraction to molecules of a different type is adhesion
attraction where atoms or molecules near the surface develop a "skin-like" on top Surface tension
Attraction where a liquid in a thin tube may rise above or fall beneath their own levels Capillarity
A curved surface meniscus
Force exerted per unit of area is Pressure
Formula for Pressure P = F/A
Unit of pressure Pascal
pressure caused by gravity gravitational pressure
2 factors that affect gravitational pressure 1) Depth of liquid 2) Density of a liquid
If Pressure is applied to a fluid inside a closed container, the pressure increase will be distributed equally throughout the container is known as ? Pascal's principle
Device used to multiply force by compressing air and a liquid Hydraulic press
A hydraulic press multiplies __?__ at the expense of __?__ force; distance
The ability to be easily squeezed and compacted into smaller containers Compressibility
What law states that the temperature of a gas remains constant, then volume and pressure are indirectly related Boyle's Law
Formula for Boyle's Law PV=PV
What law states that the pressure of a gas remains constant, then volume and temperature are directly related Charles's Law
Formula for Charles's Law V/T = V/T
What law states that the volume of a gas remains constant, then the pressure and temperature are directly related Amonton's Law
Formula for Amonton's Law P/T = P/T
The pressure of a gas is generated by the for of all the __?__ of molecules with the container walls collisions
Who is credited with defining atmospheric pressure Evangelista Torricelli
An empty space with no matter Vacuum
A device used to measure air pressure barometer
scientists who study the weather meteorologist
device that is made without liquid and can determine atmospheric pressure Aneroid barometer
A device used to measure altitude Altimeter
The higher __?__ one goes, then the __?__ pressure is exerted elevation, lower
Fluids tend to move from areas of __?__ pressure to areas of __?__ pressure high; low
Simple devices used to move liquids over obstacles without pumps siphons
What is used to first pump a siphon primer
The end of the siphon from which the liquid drains must be __?__ than the liquid level in the container from which the liquid is coming from lower
__?__ pressure allows certain objects to float in liquids and gases fluid
The Greek mathematician who helped discover his king's crown was not fully made out of gold Archimedes
tendency for a solid object to float when placed in a fluid buoyancy
States that the buoyant force experienced by an object is exactly equal to the weight of the fluid displaced Archimedes' principle
An object in a fluid will float if it is __?__ than an equal volume of the fluid lighter
An object in a fluid will sink if it is __?__ than an equal volume of the fluid heavier
A device used to measure the specific gravity of liquids hydrometer
A vessel that can float on top of the water or maneuver beneath the surface by changing its buoyancy Submarine
Where the submarine equals the same weight of the water displaced neutral buoyancy
What theory states that all matter is in constant motion and move faster if temperature increases Kinetic theory of matter
The basis of understanding all matter atomic theory of matter
Know how to solve for Input and Outputs on hydraulic press force input/area input = force output/area output
What principle is demonstrated by a hydraulic press pascal's principle
Airfoil-like structures designed for use in water are __?__ hydrofoil
A lateral pressure exerted by a moving fluid decreases as the fluid's speed increases is known as __?__ Bernoulli's principle
extremely small particles that make up matter are called __?__ atoms
The science of shaping objects to allow the smooth flow of fluids around them is called? streamlining
Part of an airplane that increases wing area to produce more lift Flap
Part of an airplane that tilts the airplane from side to side Aileron
What is the downward force of gravity on an airplane? weight
What is the force that tends to slow an object moving through a fluid drag
An airplane's angle left or right is known as __?__ yaw
Part of an airplane that controls pitch Elevator
formula for hooke's law F=kx
Essay: Describe how Bernoulli's principle contributes to the forces of thrust and lift on an airplane in flight Lift: Airfoil's shape, Bernoulli's principle, pressure difference upon wing. Thrust: spinning blades
Created by: Mrs. Sechrist