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Psych

TermDefinition
Professor Wundt Created the first pyschology labratory
Structuralism Early school of thought - Used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
Functionalism Early school of thought - Explored how mental and behavioral processes function
Introspection Looking inward
William Jones Author, functionalist
Mary Whinton Calkins President of the American Psychological Association
Margaret Floy Washburn First woman to receive a psychology degree, Second APA President
Behaviorism A view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without referance to mental process
Freudian Psychology Emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior
Humanistic Psychology Draw attention to current environmental influences, that could nurture or limit our growth potential
Cognitive Psychology Scientifically explores how we percieve, process, and remember information
Behavior Anything an organism does
Mental Process Internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior
Psychology The science of behavioral and mental processes
Nature - Nurture Issue Longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
Natural Selection Nature selects traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular enviroment
Levels of Analysis Different complementary views from biological to psychological to social - cultural for analyzing any given phenomenon
Biopsychosocial Approach An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social - cultural levels of analysis
Neuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions
Evolutionary Natural selection of traits
Behavior Genetics Our genes and environment influences differences
Psychodynamic Behavior springs from unconscious
Behavioral How we learn observable responses
Cognitaive How we encode, process, store and revive information
Social - Cultural How behavior and thinking differs across cultures
Basic Research Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied Research Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Counseling Psychologists Help people cope with challenges and crises, and achieving greater well being
Clinical Psychology A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Psychiatry A branch of medicare dealing with psychological disorders
Positive Pyschology The scientific study of human functioning, with goals of discovering and promoting strenghs
Testing Effect Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information
Hindsight Bais The tenancy to believe, after learning an outcome, that no one would have foreseen it (I-knew-it-all-along Phenomenon)
Critical Thinking Smart thinking by not blindly following arguments or conclusions
Theory Explanation using principles that organizes and predicts behaviors and events
Hypothesis Testable Prediction
Operational Definition Statement of procedures to see whether the basic findings exceeds the other participants and circumstances
Case Study Observation technique where one person is studied in depth in hope of reveling universal principles
Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation
Survey A technique by questioning a group, a random sample of a group or a representative
Population All those in a group being studied
Random Sample A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Correlaton A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and how well either factor predicts the other
Correlation Coefficant A statistical index of the relationship between two things
Experiment A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
Experimental Group The group exposed to the experiment
Control Group The group not exposed to the experiment
Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
Double Blind Procedures Experimental procedure in which participants and research staff are blind to who has been exposed in the experiment
Placebo Effect Experimental results caused by expectations alone
Independent Variable The experimental factor that is manipulated
Confounding Variable A factor other than independent variable that might produce an effect in the experiment
Dependent Variable The outcome factor
Culture Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Informed Concent Giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to decide if they want us to participate
Debriefing The post experimental explanation of a study
Biological Psychology The scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes
Neuron A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Dendrites A neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Axon The neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Myelin Sheath A fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next
Glial Cells Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also play a role in learning and thinking
Action Potential A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Threshold The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Synapse The junction between the axon tip of sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
Endorphins A natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Nervous System The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Central Nervous System (CNS) The brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) The sensory and motor neurons that connect the center nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
Nerves Bundled axons that form neural "cables" connect to the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Sensory (Afferent) Neurons Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
Motor (Efferent) Neurons Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Interneurons Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Somatic Nervous System The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs
Sympathetic Nervous System The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic Nervous System The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Reflex A simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus
Endocrine System The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Hormones Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
Adrenal Glands A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress
Pituitary Glands The endocrine system's most influential gland
Lesion Tissue destruction
Brainstem The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
Medulla The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Thalamus The brain's sensory router, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving ares in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Reticular Formation A nerve network that travels through the brainstem and plays an important role in controlling arousal
Electroencephalogram (EEG) An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface
Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET) A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue
Functional MRI (fMRI) A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans
Cerebeullum The "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory
Limbic System Neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives
Amygdala Two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotions
Hypothalamus A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities; linked to emotion and reward
Cerebral Cortex The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Frontal Lobes Portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Parietal Lobes Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Occipital Lobes Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
Temporal Lobes Portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
Motor Cortex An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Sensory Cortex Area at the front of the parietal lobes registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Association Areas Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking
Plasticity The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
Neurogenesis The formation of new neurons
Corpus Callosum The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Split Brain A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them
Gender The socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female
Agession Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
X Chromosome The sex chromosome found in both men and women
Y Chromosome The sex chromosome found only in men
Testosterone The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
Puberty The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
Primary Sex Characteristics The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
Secondary Sex Characteristics Non reproductive sexual traits (blond hair, hips, body hair)
Menarche The first menstrual period
Gender Role A set of expected behaviors for males or females
Role A set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in position ought to behave
Gender Identity Our sense of being male or female
Social Learning Theory The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Gender Typing The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
Transgender An umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex
Mode The most frequently occurring scores in a distribution
Mean The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
Median The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
Range The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard Deviation A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Normal Curve A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describe the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes
Correlation Coefficant A statistical index of the relationship between two things
Scatterplot A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between two variable. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
Regression Toward the Mean The tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back toward the average
Cross-sectional Study Research in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Longitudinal Study Research in which the same people are restudied and retest over a long period of time
Statistical Significance A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Created by: 175645206208438