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matter

physical science

TermDefinition
atom the basic element in witch all particles are made
atomic mass the average mass of all isotopes of an element
atomic weight the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
electron a tiny negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus
element a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means
gas a state of matter with no definite shape or volume
group element in the same vertical column of the periodic table; also called family
liquid a state of matter with no definite shape but has a definite volume
molecule a particle made of two or more atoms bonded together
period a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
Periodic Table a chart of elements showing the repeating patterns of there properties
proton a small positively charged particle in the nucleus of the atom
neutron a small particle in the nucleus of the atom has no electrical charge
solid a sate of matter that has a definite volume and a definite shape
thermal energy the total energy of all particles of an object
chemical change A change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances
chemical property A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance
compound A pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined
flammability Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion
heterogeneous mixture A mixture in which pure substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture
homogenous mixture A mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture
law of conservation of matter The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system mass cannot change quantity if it is not added or r
mixture Two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically combined
physical change A change in a substance that does not change its identity
physical property A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
reactivity The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds
solubility Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent
chemical weathering The process that breaks down rocks through physical changes.
deposition Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
erosion The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathe rock and soil.
mechanical weathering The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces.
oxidation A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidises, forming rust.
sediment Earth materials deposited by erosion.
sedimentary rock The type of rock that is made of hardened sedimentary.
weathering The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface.
acid rain rainfall made sufficiently acidic by atmospheric pollution that it causes environmental harm, typically to forests and lakes.
crystallization A chemical solid–liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs.
deformation the action or process of changing in shape or distorting, especially through the application of pressure.
igneous rock Rocks that crystallize below Earth's surface, and the slow cooling that occurs there allows large crystals to form.
lava hot molten or semifluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure, or solid rock resulting from cooling of this.
magma hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling.
metamorphic rock A result of a transformation of a pre-existing rock.
sedimentation The accumulation of sand and dirt that settles in the bottom of lakes.