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Psychology Unit 2

Hindsight bias the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen
critical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, assesses the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts events or behaviors
hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
naturalistic observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
sampling bias a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample
population all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population)
random sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
correlation a measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other
correlation coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two variables
scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
illusory correlation the perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. By random assignment of participants, the experiment aims to control other relevant variables
experimental group in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control group in an experiment the group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the two groups
double-blind procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received that treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, in which a participant assumes is an active agent
independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
confounding variable a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
dependent variable the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
validity the extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to
descriptive statistics numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency and measures of variation
histogram a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution
mode the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
mean the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
median the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
skewed distribution a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value
range the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
normal curve a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes
inferential statistics numerical data that allow one to generalize - to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population
statistical significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
informed consent an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
debriefing the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants
Created by: WoodardC18