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NURS9054 Pharmacology for Nurses

Cardiac Output The blood that is pumped through the heart in each heart beat.
Hypotension sustained blood pressure that is lower than that required to adequately perfuse body’s tissue
Hypertension sustained blood pressure that is above normal limits
Cardiac output
Heart Rate the rate at which the heart beats, usually beats per minute
Stroke Volume the amount of blood pumped out of the ventricle with each beat; important in determining blood pressure
Systemic vascular resistance
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs that blocks ACE, the enzyme responsible for converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II in the lungs; this blockage prevents the vasoconstriction and aldosterone release related to angiotensin II
Angiotensin II receptor blockers drugs that block specific receptors found in blood vessels and in the adrenal gland that react with angiotensin II to cause vasoconstriction and the release of aldosterone
Calcium channel blockers drugs that decrease blood pressure, cardiac workload, and myocardial oxygen consumption; effective in treating angina. They act by inhibiting the movement of calcium ions across the menbrances of the myocardial and arterial muscle cells, altering the acti
Vasodilators drugs reserved for severe hypotension, they directly dilate blood vessels by acting on the smooth muscle to cause relaxation. Decreased BP but does not effect the HR so tachycardia ensues (e.g. diazoxide, hydralazine, sodium nitroprusside (p) and minoxidi
Diuretic drugs that increase urine production, more importantly for their ability to increase the secretion of sodium.
Oedema movement of fluid into the interstitial spaces; occurs when the balance between osmotic pull (from plasma proteins) and hydrostatic push (from blood pressure) is disturbed
Thiazide diuretics Mild diuretic. Acts by blocking the chloride pump in the tubule cells lining the ascending loop of Henle and the distal tubule. As a results sodium passively moves with the chloride to follow the negative ion Cl. Ultimately it prevents the reabsorption of
Loop diuretics Diuretic that works on the loop of Henle, ‘high ceiling diuretic’ because of their greater effect compared to other diuretics. Acts by blocking the chloride pump in the ascending loop of Henle, decreasing the reabsorption of Na and Cl, resulting in copiou
Potassium-sparing diuretics Diuretic that causes the loss of sodium while promoting the retention of sodium. It acts as an aldostrone antagonist, blocking the actions of aldosterone in the distal tubule. Often used in combination with other diuretics (e.g. spironolactone (p), emilor
Osmotic diuretics Diuretic that pull water into the renal tubule without sodium loss. Uising osmotic pull of not well absorbed sugars in the blood to exert a large osmotic pull. Usually only used in acute settings as the osmotic pull is not limited to the kidney, i.e. int
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