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Psychology Unit 1

TermDefinition
empiricism the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
structuralism early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
functionalism early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
experimental psychology the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
behaviorism the view that psychology 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1) but not 2)
humanistic psychology a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth of potential healthy people
cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
nature-nurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely by passed on to succeeding generations
levels of analysis the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
behavioral psychology the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
biological psychology the scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes
cognitive psychology the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
evolutionary psychology the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection
psychodynamic psychology a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
social-cultural psychology the study of situations and culture affect our behavior and thinking
psychometrics the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
developmental psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
education psychology the study of psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
personality psychology the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
social psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
human factors psychology an I/O psychology subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
counseling psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater well-being
clinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
positive psychology the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive
community psychology a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups
testing effect enhance memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning
SQ3R a study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, retrieve, and review
Created by: WoodardC18