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# AP Psych Ch 2

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Anecdotal evidence | Personal stories about specific incidents |

Case study | In-depth investigation of individual subject |

Confounding of variables | Condition that exists whenever two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their independent effects |

Control group | Subjects in study who do not receive treatment given to experimental group |

Correlation | Extent to which two variables are related to each other |

Correlation coefficient | Numerical index of degree of relationship between two variable |

Data collection techniques | Procedures for making empirical observation and measurements |

Dependent variable | In experiment, variable thought to be affected by manipulation of independent variable |

Descriptive statistics | Statistics used to organize / describe data |

Double-blind procedure | Research strategy in which neither subjects nor experiments know which subjects are in experimental and control groups |

Experiment | Research method in which investigator manipulates variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occurred in a second variable as a result |

Experimental group | The subjects in a study who receive some certain treatment in regard on the independent variable |

Experimenter bias | A phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome influence the result |

Extraneous variables | Any variables other than the independent variable that seem to influence the dependent variable in a specific study |

Hypothesis | A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables |

Independent variable | In an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable |

Inferential statistics | Statistics used to interpret data / draw conclusions |

Journal | A periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry |

Mean | Arithmetic average |

Median | Score in center |

Mode | Score occurring most often |

Naturalistic observation | Descriptive research method in which researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behavior without intervening directly with subjects |

Operational definition | Definition that describes actions / operations that will be made to measure / control a variable |

Placebo effects | Fact that subjects' expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they receive an empty / false / ineffectual treatment |

Population | Larger collection of animal or people from which a sample is drawn and that researchers want to generalize about |

Random assignment | Constitution of groups in a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assiged |

Replication | Repetition of study to see whether the earlier results are replicated |

Research methods | Different approaches to the manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies |

Response set | A tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions |

Sample / Participants | The collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study |

Sampling bias | A problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn |

Social desirability bias | A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself |

Standard deviation | An index of amount of variability in set of data |

Statistical significance | The condition that exists when probability that observed findings are due to chance are very low |

Statistics | Use of math to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data |

Subjects | Persons / animals whose behavior is systematically observed in study |

Survey | A descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of subjects' behavior |

Theory | System of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations |

Variability | Extent to which the stories in a data set tend to vary from each other and from the mean |

Variables | Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics , behaviors controlled / observed in study. |

Correlational Studies | Research method which systematically observes two variables whether it has association between them |

Meta-analysis | Analyzing results of several previous studies |

T-Test |