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Test 1

Ch 40, 41, 51, 52, 59

What are the A1c levels? below 5% is non diabetic 5.7%-6.4% is pre diabetic 6.5% or higher is diabetes
What is the normal fasting glucose? 70-105 mg/mL
What are the different types of insulin? Rapid, Short, Intermediate, Long
Signs of hyperglycemia polyuria, polydypsia, polyphagia, fatigue, weakness, vision changes, weight loss, nausea/vomitting, abdominal pain
DKA value Glucose > 300 mg/dL (greater than 300)
what is the only oral anti diabetic pregnant woman can take? Metformin
how does insulin treat hyperkalemia? insulin moves potassium into cells
adverse effects of insulin? hypoglycemia, lipohypertrophy, hypokalemia
Signs of Hypoglycemia cold & clammy need some candy. Headache, tremors, tachycardia, palpitations, diaphoresis, shakiness
Metabolic acidosis antidote? Sodium Bicarbonate
What are the oral anti diabetic categories? Sulfonylureas, Biguanides, Alpha glucoside Inhibitors, Thiazolidinediones, Meglitinides, Gliptins, Incretin Modifiers
Which oral anti diabetic category is 2nd line? Sulfonylureas--- Glipdizide
Which oral anti diabetic category is 1st line? Biguanides -- Metformin
What can sulfonylureas cause? Disulferium reaction, Nausea, Vomiting, Flushed face, tachycardia
Which oral anti diabetic do you withhold 48 hours before & after contrast media? Biguanides -- Metformin
What deficiencies does metformin cause? Vitmain B12 and folic acid
What is the MOA of metformin? • Inhibits glucose production in the liver • Reduce absorption of glucose in the intestine • Increases glucose uptake
What clients is metformin contraindicated in and why? Clients with sever shock, infection, and hypoxia. Risk for lactic acidosis
How do you administer nasal drops? Administer nose drops lying on the side with the head in a low position which helps spread the nasal drops, allows the medication to be more effective and prevents swallowing the medication
What teaching do you provide to a client on a beclomethasone inhaler? Rinse you're mouth!
What are methylxanthines? Side effects? Amniophylline & Theophylline Dysrrythmias, Tachycardia, HTN, Seizures, Cardiac arrest
Use of Magnesium Sulfate in asthma Relax Bronchial Smooth Muscles & Increase histamine release
What are glucocorticoids? Anti inflammatory steroid.
Nursing considerations & Side effects of Inhaled Glucocorticoids? May take 1-4wks to reach full effect Rinse & brush after using! Can cause difficulty speaking Hoarseness Oral candidiasis Side Effect: Affect height in children
Nursing considerations & Side effects of PO Glucocorticoids? Prednisone / presnisalone Use lowest dose for shortest amount of time Can cause systemic effects • Tachycardia, insomnia, hyperglycemia, bone marrow suppression
Difference between H1 antagonist 1st & 2nd generation 2nd generation has less sedative effects
Adverse effects of antihistamines Drowsy, dizzy, fatigue, dry mouth, blurry vision, N/V, restlessness, confusion
Antitussive Suppress Cough
Expectorants Increase bronchial secretion & enhance the expulsion of mucus
Mucolytics Clears mucus form airways, lungs, bronchi, & trachea
Decongestants Relieve Nasal Congestion
What do you want to take 15 minutes before exercise or allergen exposure Cromolyn or Nedocromil
Theophylline Levels? 10-20 mcg/mL
What is the onset, peak, & duration of rapid insulins? Onset - 15 minutes Peak - 1 hour Duration - 3 hours
What is the onset, peak, & duration of short insulins? Onset - 30 minutes Peak - 2 hours Duration - 8 hours
What is the onset, peak, & duration of Intermediate insulins? Onset - 2 hours Peak - 8 hours Duration - 16 hours
What is the onset, peak, & duration of long insulins? Onset - 2 hour Peak - no Duration - 24 hours
SE/AE of Sulfonylureas
SE/AE of Biguanides
SE/AE of Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors
SE/AE of thiazolidinediones
SE/AE of meglitinides
What meds are given for hypothyroidism? Levothyroxine
What meds are given for Hyperthyroidism? PTU & Methimazole
What do you give for insulin overdose? Glucagon or D50
If allergic to sulfa, what can't patients take? sulfonylureas
Aspirin Decrease platelet aggregation
Nitroglycerin Vasodilator increase blood flow to heart flushed feeling take 3x every 5 minutes sublingual GLOVES
Morphine Sulfate Opioid for pain management Vasodilator reduces heart workload cause respiratory depression
Atropine Sulfate Anticholinergic treat bradycardia & forms of heart block Pre op Med ppl complain of dry mouth
Bethanacol Antidote? Atropine
Adenosine for FAST HR give fast with quick saline followed helps restart the heart
Dilitiazem Anti-arrhythmic calcium channel blocker 2nd line agent monitor the heart
AMiodarone anti-arrhythmic BBW for death casue pulmoary edema, dyspnea, cough for 6+ months can affect thyroid
Lidocaine for arrhythmias mix with pi for suturing sodium channel blocker SE- drowsy, confusion, seizures
Magnesium Sulfate for arrhythmias used to lower BP & relax uterus bronchodilator given continuous IV - minimum of an hr
Antidote for dig toxicity digiband
what do you monitor with magnesium sulfate patients? new arrhythmia, respiratory depression, depressed DTR
Epinephrine First line drug anti arrhythmic vasoconstrictor catecholamine 1 time or continuous IV
Vasopressin Treats ventricular dysrrhythmias
Sodium Bicarb treat metabolic acidosis Prefilled infant syringe 1-1 solution peds & adults make sure to ventilate pt appropiately
Mannitol used for head trauma pts decreases ICP Use filtered syringe watch for euro status & lab values
Naloxone opioid antidote
Benzo antidote? Flumazenil
activated charcoal PO prevents absorption of toxins in body for non corrosive, non irritating toxins
Difference between Dopamine & dobuamine Dobutamine incrase contractility of the myocardium (Positive chnotropic)
In low doses, what does dopamine do? Dilate Renal Arteries
What can epinephrine treat? anaphylactic shock
Albuterol bronchodilator
First line for asthma attack? albuterol
Albuterol activates what receptor? Beta 2
Dipenhydramine HCL Antihistamine
what does D50 & glucagon treat? Hypoglycemia
Labetalol is for what crisis for HTN cris
Labetalol is what kind of blocker? Mixed -- alpha & beta
Nitroprusside very powerfil vasodilator given IV
Is nitroprusside light sensitive? YES
If on nitroprusside for more than 3 days what does the body convert it too? Cyanide
Furosemide loop diuretic
what is Somatropin? What do you monitor? given for GH deficiency Height
when do you give somatropin? At night!
if you have to give hyperthyroidism meds in pregnancy, which one do you give? PTU
When do you take PTU & Methimazole? Empty stomach 30 minutes before breakfast
avoid iodine with what meds? PTU & Methimazole
what is radioactive iodine for? hyperthyroidism =, thyroid cancer, imaging
SE of radioactive iodine Radiation sickness, bone marrow depression, Hypothyroidism
Radioactive precautions? Limit contact to 30 min sleep separate wash sheets separate separate utensil
Patients should do what after taking calitrol? sit upright for 30 minutes
Most common cause of common cold? Rhino Virus
What are H1 antagonist used for? allergies, colds, insomnia, sickness
Antidote for Tylenol? Mucomyst
2nd line defense in acute asthma attack? Epinephrine



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