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Nutrition Key Terms

RTH 243, Chapter 18

Metabolism The body's way of transferring energy from food to the the body's energy currency molecules.
Oxygen uptake The amount of oxygen used by the tissues per minute.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Rate of oxygen consumption at rest.
Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE) The measure obtained when a person is at absolute rest with no physical movement.
Catabolism The destructive phase of metabolism that breaks complex structures into simple ones.
Anaerobic Threshold The point during incremental exercise at which blood lactate and CO2 levels increase due to anaerobic metabolism occurring in the muscles.
Body Mass Index (BMI) One's weight in Kg divided by the square of one's height in cm; the primary method for assessment of the appropriateness of weight for a given height.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) The body's energy currency molecules
Direct Calorimetry Measurement of metabolism by quantifying the total heat given off by the body when in an enclosed chamber.
Indirect Calorimetry Measurement of the metabolic rate using inspired/expired gas analysis and computation of oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production. (VCO2)
Gluconeogenesis Converting protein (amino acids) to sugar.
Carbohydrates Organic compound containing the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Protein Large molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; formed when long chain of peptides reaches about 100 amino acids or more in length.
Fat (Lipids) provide 9Kals/g composed of triglycerides and fatty acids (called fats)
Vitamins A group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism.
Glycolysis Process of converting glucose into pyruvic acid.
Lacid Acid The product of anaerobic metabolism.
Oncotic Pressure The pressure in the vascular space by the presence of large protein molecules that draws fluid from outside the vessels into the vasculature.
Parenteral Nutrition (PN) Feeding a patient intravenously, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
Enteral Nutrition (EN) Provision of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract when the patient is unable to chew or swallow.
Created by: ginger0701