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History/Basics Psych

AP Psychology

Aristotle Thought intelligence - heart
Descartes Founder - modern philosophy (concept of dualism)
John Locke Created idea of tabula rasa
Wilhelm Wundt Father of psych - wanted separation of psych from other sciences. First psych lab - Germany. Studied psychophysics.
Stanley Hall Took psych to America - founded American Psych Association
Titchener Started structuralism - components of consciousness
William James Started functionalism - purpose of consciousness (no components - consciousness is a "stream")
Watson / Skinner Studied behaviorism - no scientific method b/c consciousness is not provable (bell-drool / stimulus-response)
Freud Studied the unconscious and how it affects behavior
Dualism Idea that mind and body are separate entities
Tabula rasa Humans born without any knowledge: all learned with experience / sensory perception
Psychophysics Focuses on people's awareness of immediate experience
Structuralism Identifying / examining fundamental components of conscious experience
Introspection Careful observation of one's own conscious experience
Functionalism Psych should only investigate purpose of consciousness
Natural selection Characteristics that give species survival advantage will be selected over time
Behavioral Psych can and should only study observable behavior
Gestalt Means "whole." Study of perception
Phi phenomenon Illusion of movement with visual stimuli in quick succession
Unconscious Thoughts, memories, feelings below consciousness that affect behavior
Psychoanalytical Tries to explain personality, motivation, disorders by focusing on unconscious (especially during childhood) (resisted because people couldn't control consciousness)
Humanistic Psychoanalytical + behaviorism. Emphasized unique qualities of humans for freedom / growth (optimistic). Different than animals.
Ethnocentrism Idea that one's group is more superior to others - basis for judging others' ways
Evolutionary Natural selection. Males better at spatial / visual tasks EXCEPT memory for locations. Critics: not provable.
Cognitive Human behavior not able to be explained without examining how we acquire, store, and process info. Mind + body reciprocally influence e/o
Biological Behavior can be explained in terms of body structure / biochemical processes that underlie behavior
Skinner Studied behaviorism - repetition of responses if they lead to a positive outcome (studied animals). Said free will was illusion
Applied psych Concerned with everyday / practical problems. (School of psych, counseling psych, Industry / Organizational psych)
Clinical psych Concerned with treatment / diagnosis of psych disorders
Empiricism Knowledge should be acquired through direct observation
Behavior Any overt response /activity by organism
Critical thinking Use of cognitive skills to increase probability of required outcome
Industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology Branch of psych - application of psych in the work place
Psychiatrists Physicians specializing in treatment / diagnosis of psych disorders
Social psych Branch of psych - way individuals' thoughts / feelings / behaviors influenced by other people
Theory System of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
Personality Studies the differences among people in such traits as self esteem
Physiological Investigate the extent to which behavior is caused by physical and chemical processes
Psychometrics Develops psych tests
Psych Education Develops psych curriculum
Created by: uriel_magana
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