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Psychology Exam 1

Aug 29-Sep19

traits characteristic ways of behaving
trait theory a theory about what basic traits appear in people's personalities
Gordan Allport's distinguished traits cardinal trait, central traits, secondary trait
cardinal trait very powerful, but rare. a single characteristic that defines a persons life
central traits a general characteristic about a person, easily observed
secondary traits characteristics that show up only in specific circumstances
Gordon Allport started with 18,000 words and 4,500 describing traits, condensed down to 3 traits
Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to study traits and found many personality related terms are related
Raymond Cattell 16 personality factor theory
Big Five Theory a model of personality that consists of 5 basic traits.
Big Five Theory traits OCEAN openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
openness 5 factor theory traits high: curious, creative, imaginative
Conscientiousness 5 factor theory traits high: responsible, self-disciplined, organized
extroversion 5 factor theory traits high: outgoing, energetic, bold
agreeableness 5 factor theory traits high: good-natured, cooperative
neuroticism 5 factor theory trait highs: anxious, stressed
reciprocal determinism life experiences shape our personality and our personality also determines our life experiences
traits characteristic ways of behaving
Gordon Allport organized 4500 words about personality into 3 categories of traits
cardinal traits a trait that dominates your entire personality and hence you life-not very common
central traits multiple traits that make up a persons personality
secondary traits trait that is present under certain circumstances and include preferences and attitudes-not as obvious
Raymond Cattail personalities are made up of the same traits, we differ in the degree to which it is expressed
Raymond Cattail identified 16 factors of dimensions of personality; each trait is scored high to low
personality distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes and individual throughout life
personality trait a part of one's personality: a particular and habitual way of thinking and acting
extrovert a kind of person who seeks stimulation and is sociable and impulsive
introvert a kind of person who avoids stimulation and is low-key and cautious
temperment the inborn, genetically based personality differences
5 factor model accurately approximates the basic trait dimensions as the Big Five personality traits OCEAN
openness tend to be curious and have a wide range of interests
openness characterized by imagination, feelings, actions and ideas
conscientiousness hard working and dependable
conscientiousness characterized by competence, self-discipline, thoughtfulness and achievement-striving
extroversion outgoing and warm
extroversion characterized by sociability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and emotional expression
agreeableness pleasant cooperative, trustworthy, and good natured
neurotocism tendency to experience negative emotions
neurotocism tend to experience emotional instability and are characterized as angry, impulsive, and hostile
reciprocal determinism in which cognitive processes, behavior, and context all interact, each influencing the others
cognitive processes refer to characteristics previously learned, including beliefs, expectations, and personality characteristics
behavior anything that we do that may be rewarded or punished
context where the behavior that occurs refers to the environment or situation, which includes rewarding/punishing stimuli
social-cognitive theory emphasizes both learning and cognition as sources of individual differences in personality
self-efficacy our level of confidence in our own abilities
locus of control our belief about the power we have over our lives
trait theories describe individuals in terms of personality traits
humanistic theories describe individuals in term of internal motivations
self-actualization a state of being in which one is at peace with oneself and with others, on has achieved a meaningful and satisfying life
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs phsyiological needs; safety; belongingness; esteem; self-actualization
physiological needs most basic needs (food, air)
safety shelter, security
belongingness basic social needs
esteem respect from others; self-respect
self-actualization to become complete, lead a meaningful and satisfying life
Roger's Theory personality is shaped by the need for self-actualization and positive regard from others
the 2 types of positive regard unconditional positive regard, and conditional positive regard
unconditional positive regard one receives unqualified love and acceptance from others
conditional positive regard love and acceptance from others is contingent upon ones behavior
psychodynamic theory was created by: Sigmund Freud
the 2 drives that underlay all human behavior Libido, thanatos
libido often manifested as the sex-drive, a life force that energizes all human behavior
thanatos a death force-anger self-destructive, procastinating
opposite of libido thanatos
opposite of thanatos libido
structure of mind: conscious mind is represented as the small visible portion of an iceberg
structure of mind: conscious the smallest part of the mind and includes what we are thinking about
structure of mind: preconscious mind is represented as the part of an iceberg that is level with waves
structure of mind: preconscious includes thoughts and feelings that are temporarily outside of our awareness. on the tip of your tongue
structure of mind: unconscious represented as the submerged portion of an iceberg
structure of mind: unconscious largest part of the mind and is always outside of our awareness
ID works on pleasure principle, aggressive and destructive
Ego reality principle, thinking and reasoning
superego how to act good and be a good person
humanism free will-environment has nothing to do with it
Abraham moslow humanist
Abraham moslow made self-actualization pyramid
carl rogers main ideas was self-concept, our thoughts and feeling about ourselves
self-concept out thoughts and feelings about ourselves
carl rogers divided self into 2 categories ideal self; real self
ideal self person you would like to be
real self person you actually are
congruence when our thoughts about our real self and ideal self are very similar
unconditional positive regard unconditional love
inconcruence very different ideal self and real self
Sigmund frued levels of consciousness:iceburg
conscience having knowledge, award. 1/10 of mind
unconscious mental activity that we are unaware of 9/10 of mind
Unconscious example freudian slip
freudian slip say a different word than the one we ment
Id contains most primitive drives, urges
Id biological aggressive and pleasure seeking drive
superego conscience, right from wrong
superego internal how to act good and be a good person
ego rational part of our personality
ego balances superego and id
ego makes our personality. balance of superego and id
neurosis experience negative emotions because ego isn't balancing id and superego well enough. anxiety
defense mechanisms unconscious protective behaviors that aim to reduce anxiety
the 8 defense mechanisms denial, displacement, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimination
denial refusing to accept real events because they're unpleasant
displacement transferring inappropriate urges or behavior onto a more acceptable or less threatening target
projections attributing unacceptable desires to others
rationalization justifying behaviors by substituting acceptable reasons for less-acceptable real reasons
reaction formation reducing anxiety by adopting beliefs contrary to your own beliefs
regression returning to coping strategies for less mature stages of development
sublimation redirecting unacceptable desires through socially acceptable channels
psychosexual stage of development a child's pleasure seeking urges that each person must pass through
oral stage child weaning off breast or bottle. adult fixation smoking or overeating
anal stage child toilet training, adult neatness or messinness
phallic stage anger and resentment towards same sex parent
latency period sexual feeling are dormant and children generally engage in activities with peers of same sex
genital stage sexual reawakening, have mature sexual interests for the opposite sex
defense mechanisms serious, long-lasting conflicts arise between the need of the id ego and superego causing guilt and anxiety-protect a person from unwanted emotions
denial refuses to acknowledge source of anxiety
displacement directing dangerous impulses towards safe objects or into acceptable activities
projection the act of attributing unacceptable thoughts or emotions to others
reaction formation behavior is the exact opposite of a dangerous impulse
regression a reversion to an earlier stage of development
repression the removal of unacceptable thoughts or emotions to the unconscious
psychosexual development Freud-personality is shaped by ones ability to gratify the libido
fixation a part of the libido remains attached to a specific part of the body
libido the energy of the sexual drive as a component of the life instinct.
fixation a part of the libido remains attached to a specific part of the body
denial man physically can't get better. wife still tells him he is going to recover
displacement man is unhappy at work, goes home and beats wife
projection man wants to have an affair. accuses his wife of being attracted to other men
reaction formation tells everyone he hates gays, he is gay
regression curls up in feeble condition
repression physically abused as a child, cant remember it
oral stage 0-1 libido attached to mouth
anal stage 2-3 libido attached to anus
phallic stage 3-6 libido attached to the genitals. wants opposite sex parent
latency stage 5-11 libido takes a break
genital stage 12+ 12+ libido attached to genitals sexual urges, mature, adult sexuality
oral stage gratification-sucking, swallowing, chewing, biting
anal stage gratification-holding and releasing feces
phallic stage gratification-masturbating
latency stage take a break, overwhelmed by wanting opposite sex parent
genital stage mature adult sex
short term memory temporary storage for mew information. 7 units, 30 seconds
long term 'permanent' st
cognitive psychology the study of information processing major topics include: attention, learning, and memory
cocktail party effect suggests we are paying at least some attention to stimuli ;filtering; that we are ignoring. hear our name said in a huge crowd of people
conscious what we are thinking about at the moment
subconscious thought processes performed automatically
automatically without active awareness
nonconscious includes the 'aha!' experienced intuition
limited congnitive resources the finite mental resources available o an individual when problem solving, information processing and other mental activites
concepts mental categories used to classify people, things, or events
cognitive schema embodies everything a person has learned about a concept
proposition single ideas within a network
spreading activation thought travels along propositions and between concepts
priming a stimulus that influences the direction thought travels, or how quickly information is processed. more quickly recognize wolf after seeing dog than squid
prototype theory every concept includes a prototype (a model of the most typical features of the concept)
sensory memory memory from the senses (fleeting)
short-term memory information that we are actively thinking about (also known as working memory)
long-term memory information that has been stored 'permanently'
declarative memory things we can descfibe, like factual information and personal experiences
procedural memory things we can do
ways to improve short term memory rehersal, chunking
rehersal repeat information to improve duration
chunking group small bits into larger wholes
cognition thinking and it encompasses the process associated with perception, knowledge, problem solving, judgement, language, and memory
cognitive psychology field of psychology dedicated to examining how people think
concepts categories or groupings of linguistic information, images, ideas, or memories, such as life experiences. big ideas that are generated by observing details, and combining these details into cognitive structures
prototype the best example or representation of a concept
schema a mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts methods of organizing information that allows the brain to work more efficiently
memory the set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time
storage the creation of a permanent record of information
sensory memory storage of brief sensory events, such as sights. sounds. and tastes, very brief, only a couple of seconds
short-term memory temporary storage system that processes incoming sensory memory-takes information from sensory information and sometimes connects it to long term memory
short term memory 7 bits, 30 seconds
long-term memory continuous storage of information, no limits
procedural memory stores information on how to do things, a memory for skilled actions
declarative memory has to do with the storage of facts and events we personally experienced
retrieval the act of getting information our of memory storage and back into conscious awareness
forgetting the loss of information from long-term memory
proactive interference when old information hinders the recall of new information
retroactive interference information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information
chunking when you organize information into manageable bits or chunks
encoding what determines whether information will be encoded (transferred from short term to long term memory)
serial-position effect 1st and last items from a list are most likely to be remembered
ensures encoding rote rehearsal, spaced practice, elaborative rehearsal
rote rehearsal practice learning again and again
spaced practice don't do it all at once, space it out
elaborative rehearsal a strategy of associating a target stimulus with other information at the time of encoding
elaborative rehersal how information gets into long-memory
elaborative rehersal dull knife made sharp,
rote rehersal dull knife used repeatedly
interference there is an interaction between new information and old information that inhibits learning or memory
proactive interference old information about a topic interferes with learning new information about a topic
retroactive interference new information interferes with remembering old information
declarative memory knowing something is true
from start to long term sensory>pay attention>short term>encode>long-term
propositions individual parts of a cognitive schema
id gorilla
superego grandma
ego balancer, in the middle
factor analysis OCEAN Raymond Catell
denial kalia refuses to admit she has an alcohol problem although she is unable to go a single day without drinking excessively
displacement during lunch at a restaurant, mark is angry at his older brother, but doesn't express it and instead is verbally abusive to the server
projection chris often cheats on her boyfriend because she suspects he is already cheating on her
rationalization kim failed his history course because he didn't study or attend class, but he told his roommates that he failed because the professor didn't like him
reaction formation naida is angry with her coworker beth for always arriving late to work after a night of partying, but she is nice and agreeable to betha dn affirms that partying as 'cool'
regression after failing to pass his doctoral examination, greg spends days in bed cuddling his favorite childhood toy
repression emily cannot remember her grandfather's fatal heart attack, although she was present
sublimation george's desire for revenge on the drunk driver who killed his son is channeled into a community support group for people who've lost loved ones to drunk driving
social cognitive theory vs personality reciprocal determination
frued's psychodynamic theory id ego superego
Created by: cassidy.limke