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Ch.1 Pharm

Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacodynamics

which form of drugs do not go through the pharmaceutic phase? Sub Q, IM, and IV
what is the pharmaceutic phase? becoming a solution, crosses the membrane
which form of meds undergo the dissolution process? PO only
what is the dissolution process? turning drug into solution before absorption
the doctor informs you there are excipients in the drugs.. what is that? fillers to enhance the dissolution
Tablets must go through this process to break off into smaller bits.. what is it? disintegration
where is the certain environment better for disintegration? an acidic environment
older woman have less gastric acidity in their stomachs. what is important to remember about their bodies ability to absorb drugs? it will absorb slower compared to a younger person
compared to a regular pill, how will enteric coated pills react? they resist disintegration... it will be a delayed process
which pills can you not crush? enteric coated
what is the pharmacokinetic phase? drugs moving to different body compartments
when is this an important process when watching out for adverse effects of the drugs
what are the processes of pharmacokinetics? absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination
what is absorption moving drug particles from GI tract to body fluids
where are oral drugs absorbed SI
digestive enzymes destroy___ protein based drugs
what is passive absorption vs active absorption passive occurs by diffusion, easier to pass through with no energy active requires a carrier and extra energy
what is pinocytosis engulfing.. carrying
which kind of solubility will just pass through? lipid soluble
which kind of solubility needs a carrier? water soluble
if something has no charge and is nonionized does it need a carrier? no - it will just pass through
which foods should you not eat with enteric coated pills those high in fat
what is the first pass effect passes straight to the liver first
what does this do to the concentration of the drug makes it less potent
what is the vocab word for the % of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation? bioavailability
if you were to put an IV in vs taking oral pills, which would get to the systemic circulation faster? IV
which has 100% bioavailability IV
which will affect the absorption of a drug A. form of drug B. GI motility C. food present in stomach D. route of drug E. toxins around the air F. blood flow everything except E
what can occur if there is too much drugs actively in your system toxicity
a grandma has a slower absorption rate.. what should you do differently with the drugs you give her? (-) the drug serum concentration
what is distribution becoming available to the body
what is distribution affected by? BF, affinity, protein- binding affect
is unbound drugs in your body good or bad bad- they are active in your body and will last there longer
2 drugs have a high competition for binding sites.. what do you keep track of with this patient receiving these drugs watch for their serum protein level because they can compete for a binding spot and it could become toxic
who should you pay most attention to in this category? older people
what is metabolism also called biotransformation
where is the primary site for this process the liver
what is t 1/2 half life- the time it takes for half of the drug to be eliminated from the body
short t1/2 4-8 hrs
long t1/2 24 + hours
how are drugs eliminated from the body? kidneys
other ways? bile, feces, urine, saliva, sweat, breast milk
if you are taking aspirin it is good to take which kind of drink with it in order to promote an acidic environment cranberry juice
what is the creatinine clearance test compares level of creatinine in blood vs. urine
which groups of people is this automatically lowered in older people and woman
when your creatinine clearance is low what should you do to make sure you don't create toxicity (-) drugs
what is the pharmacodynamic phase? study of how drugs affect the body
give an example of a primary symptom vs a secondary symptom when taking Benadryl primary- alleviates allergies secondary- constipation
the doctor says one patient has a tolerance of 3 mg for Advil while another pt has a tolerance of 6 mg. what is that range called? dose response
what is it called for the time it takes the symptoms to dissapear? onset of action
what is it called for how long the effect works on the pt? duration of action
what does the receptor theory describe? if there is a better fit there will be a stronger connection
a drug blocks a certain problem in your body.. what is this an example of antagonist
this drug helps produce an effect on your body... what is this an example of? agonist
this drug affects multiple site on your body. which kind of drug is this nonspecific
this kind of drug affects various receptors on your body. which kind of drug is this nonselective
name the actions drugs have on your body stimulate, replace, inhibit, irritate
suzie can have 3 mg of advil and 6 mg will kill her.. whats this called therapeutic index
the closer that it gets to __.. the greater the chance it will kill you 1
if your therapeutic range is __ you must monitor the pt carefully narrow
when do you measure the peak at the highest amount of rate of absorption
when do you measure the trough before the next dose.. rate of elimination
what is the peak drug level highest amount of PLASMA CONCENTRATION at a specific time
what is a loading dose large initial dose to get fast results
which is the side effect vs adv. effect: Benadryl makes you sleepy but if you are allergic you could go into tachyphylaxis sleepy= side effect tachy= adv.
an african american responds to ACE inhibitors differently than a caucasian does.. what is this an example of pharmacogenetics
tolerance vs. tachyphylaxis tolerance is (-) response over course tachy- rapid decline
placebo effect psychological effect that meds are helping when they are actually chemically altered
which specific symptoms should you asses a pt for tachycardia, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention



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