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Personality Theory consists of two separate, but interrelated, theories: structural theory and developmental theory
Structural Theory Posits the personality with three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego
Id Present at births, consists of the individual's unconscious instinctual drives or needs. It seeks immediate gratification
Pleasure Principle According to Freud, the function of the id that reduces tension by gratifying instinctual needs without regard for logic, reality, or morality.
Ego Develops at about six months in response to the id's inability to gratify all of its needs. Operates on the basis of the Reality Principle - it defers gratification of the id's instincts until an appropriate object is available in reality and uses second
Reality Principle According to Freud, the ego function which gratifies id needs in a manner consistent with the realistic demands of the environment.
Superego Emerges when the child is between four and five; represents an internalization of society's values and standards as conveyed to the child by his/her parents through their rewards and punishments.
Anxiety A conflict between the id's impulses and the demands of either reality or the superego
Defense Mechanisms When the ego is not able to resolve a conflict through reactional, realistic means. Two characteristics: 1) they operate on an unconscious level; and 2) they serve to deny or distort reality.
Defense Mechanisms (9 terms) Repression, Fixation, Regression, Introjection, Projection, Reaction Formation, Rationalization, Displacement, and Sublimation
Repression Freud divided the mind into three areas; the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious. Repression occurs when the id's drives are excluded from conscious awareness by maintaining them in the unconscious.
Fixation A person is exhibiting fixation when, as the result of an unresolved conflict or other trauma during a particular stage of development, the person remains (becomes fixated) at that stage.
Regression Occurs when a person retreats to an earlier, safer stage of development and behaves in ways characteristic of that stage.
Introjection When one incorporates into one's ego system the picture of an object as one conceives the object to be.
Projection Involves attributing one's own unacceptable instinctual needs to other people.
Rationalization Entails explaining one's unacceptable behaviors in ways which make them appear rational and socially acceptable.
Displacement The transfer of an instinctual drive from its original target to a less threatening target so the drive can be more safely expressed.
Sublimation A type of displacement in which an unacceptable impulse is diverted into a socially-acceptable, even admirable, activity.
Developmental Theory Emphasizes the sexual drives of the id and proposes one's personality is formed during childhood as the result of certain experiences which occur during the five psychosexual stages of development.
Psychosexual Stages of Development 1) Oral; 2) Anal; 3) Phallic; 4) Latency; & 5) Genital
Oral Stage First stage of psychosexual development (age 0 to 12 months), when pleasure is centered on the mouth area.
Anal Stage Second stage of psychosexual development (ages one through three years), when pleasure is centered on the function of elimination.
Phallic Stage Third stage of psychosexual development (three to six years), when gratification is centered on the genital area. The Oedipus conflict occurs during this time.
Latency Stage Fourth stage of psychosexual development (six to twelve years), emphasis is developing social skills rather than sexual gratification.
Genital Stage Fifth stage of psychosexual development (Twelve + years), when sexual gratification is achieved through sexual intercourse.
Oedipus Conflict The incestual attraction the boy has toward his mother and its accompanying desire to kill the rival for his mother's affection (i.e. father) and fear of castration by his father.
Maladaptive Behavior The result of unresolved unconscious conflicts which occurred during childhood.
Therapeutic Goals To alleviate pathological symptoms by making the unconscious conscious and reintegrating previously repressed material into the total personality structure.
Therapeutic Techniques The main targets of analysis are the client's free associations, dreams, resistances, and transferences.
Free Association Requires the client to say whatever comes to mind without censure.
Dream Analysis To help uncover unconscious conflicts and motives.
Resistance Client may resist further confrontation with previously unconscious material to avoid anxiety. Resistance can be manifested by missed appointments, tardiness, and avoidance of certain topics or periods of silence.
Transference Allows the client to project onto the therapist feelings he or she originally had for a parent or other significant person in the past.
Countertransference A therapist's inappropriate emotional reactions to the client.
Clarification Restating the client's remarks and feelings in clearer terms.
Confrontation Making statements which help the client see his/her behavior in a new way.
Interpretation Explicitly connecting a client's current behavior to unconscious processes.
Catharsis The emotional release resulting from the recall of unconscious material; it paves the way for the client's insight into the relationship between his/her current behaviors and unconscious processes.
Working Through The final and longest stage in psychoanalysis, allows the client to gradually assimilate new insights into his or her personality.
Reaction Formation Defense mechanism involving replacing an anxiety-arousing impulse with its direct opposite.
Created by: SBT38
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