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AP Pyschology

Trephination method used by Stone Age humans to carve wholes through the skull to release evil spirits
Plato and Democritus two Greek philosophers who theorized the relationship between thought and behavior
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) set up the first psychological laboratory in a small apartment near the university at Leipzig, Germany; trained subjects in introspection
Introspection originally used by Wilhelm Wundt where subjects were asked to accurately record their cognitive responses to simple stimuli
Structuralism A school of psychology based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and to investigate how these elements are related.
William James founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment
Functionalism a school of thought that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
The Principles of Psychology psychology's first text book by William James in 1890. It examines how the structures Wundt identified function in our lives
Gestalt Psychology the school of psychological thought that argued that behavior cannot be studied in parts but must be viewed as a whole
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) gestalt psychologist who argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete parts
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) revolutionized psychology with the psychoanalytic theory
Unconscious mind a part of the mind which we do not have control over and in part determines how we think and behave
Repression pushing down thoughts and feelings into out unconcious mind that cause so much tension and anxiety that our conscious mind cannot deal with them
Defense mechanism an unconscious way of protecting oneself from emotion and physical harm.
John Watson (1786-1958) studied the conditioning experiements of Ivan Pavlov; declared psychology to be considered a science that must limit itself to observable phenomena. Established the school of behaviorism in the 1920
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian psychologist who discovered the principles of classical conditioning through his experiments with dogs
Behaviorism dominant paradigm of psychology from 1920s- 1960s, maintaining that psychologists should only look at behavior and its causes---stimuli and responses
B. F. Skinner (1904- 1990) expanded the basic ideas of behaviorism to include reinforcement
Reinforcement environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses
Humanist Perspective stress individual choice and free will
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) , humanistic psychology; Contributions: founded client-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard
Created by: Kevin K. II