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Science of PSY

Chapter 1 (psychology)

Psychology the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Behavior outward or overt actions and reactions
Mental processes internal, covert activity of our minds
Psychology Is a Science Prevent possible biases from leading to faulty observations. Precise and careful measurement
Psychology’s Four Goals Description Explanation Prediction Control
Theory general explanation of a set of observations or facts
Structuralism Focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind
Wilhelm Wundt’s Psychology Laboratory Germany in 1879 Developed the technique of objective introspection: the process of objectively examining and measuring one’s thoughts and mental activities
Edward Titchener Wundt’s student; brought structuralism to America
Margaret Washburn Titchener’s student; first woman to earn a P h.D in psychology
Functionalism How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play Influenced the modern fields of: Educational psychology Evolutionary psychology Industrial/organizational psychology
Mary Whiton Calkins she was denied P h D because she was a woman.
Gestalt “Good figure” psychology Started with Wertheimer, who studied sensation and perception. Gestalt ideas are now part of the study of cognitive psychology.
Cognitive psychology a field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving
Psychoanalysis theory and therapy based on the work of Freud’s patients suffered from nervous disorders with no apparent physical cause. Freud proposed the existence of an unconscious mind into which we push—or repress—our threatening urges and desires.
Behaviorism1 Science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only Must be directly seen and measured
Behaviorism2 Proposed by John B. Watson Based on the work of Ivan Pavlov, who demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned (learned) Watson believed that phobias were learned.
Mary Cover Jones an early pioneer in behavior therapy
Psychodynamic perspective modern version of psychoanalysis More focused than is psychoanalysis on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of motivations behind a person’s behavior other than sexual motivations
Behavioral Perspective B. F. Skinner studied operant conditioning of voluntary behavior. Behaviorism became a major force in the twentieth century. Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism.
Humanistic Perspective Owes a great deal to the early roots of psychology in the field of philosophy. People have free will: the freedom to choose their own destiny. Early founders:Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers
Cognitive Perspective Focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
Sociocultural Perspective Focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
Biopsychological Perspective Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share Looks at the way the mind works and the reasons that it works as it does. Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value.
Psychiatrist Medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
Psychiatric Social Worker A social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse
Psychologist Professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology.Can do counseling, teaching, and research; may specialize in any one of a large number of areas within psychology
Scientific Method System of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced
Steps in the Scientific Method: Perceive the question. Form a hypothesis: tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations. Test the hypothesis. Draw conclusions. Report your results so that others can try to replicate
Naturalistic Observation Watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment Major advantage: realistic picture of behavior. Disadvantages Observer effect: the tendency of people or animals to behave differently when they know they are being observed
Laboratory Observation Watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting Advantages:control over environment,allows use of specialized equipment. DisadvantageAn artificial situation may result in artificial behavior
Surveys Researchers ask a series of questions about the topic under study
Representative sample randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects
Population: the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested
Correlation Measure of the relationship between two variables
Variable: anything that can change or vary
The correlation coefficient ranges from -1.00 to +1.00. The closer to +1.00 or -1.00, the stronger the relationship between the variables. No correlation = 0.0 Perfect correlation = -1.00 or +1.00
Positive correlation variables are related in the same direction As one increases, the other increases. As one decreases, the other decreases.
Negative correlation variables are related in opposite direction As one increases, the other decreases. Correlation does not prove causation!
Experiment A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see whether corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause and effect relationships
Independent Variable (IV) The variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter
Dependent Variable (D V) The variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment
Experimental Group Subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable
Control Group Subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment (which controls for confounding variables)
Random Assignment The process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group Controls for confounding (extraneous, interfering) variables
Placebo Effect The phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
Single-Blind Study Subjects do not know whether they are in the experimental or the control group (reduces placebo effect).
Experimenter Effect Tendency of the experimenters’ expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
Double-Blind Study Neither the experimenter nor the subjects know which subjects are in the experimental or control group (reduces placebo effect and experimenter effect).
Institutional Review Boards Groups of psychologists or other professionals who look over each proposed research study and judge it according to its safety and consideration for the participants in the study
Common Ethical Guidelines The rights and wellbeing of participants must be weighed against the study’s value to science. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation.Deception must be justified. Participants may withdraw from the study at any time.
Critical Thinking Making reasoned judgments about claims
Four Basic Criteria There are very few “truths” that do not need to be subjected to testing. All evidence is not equal in quality. Just because someone is considered to be an authority
Created by: ksheek1
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