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Soc Chapter 1

TermDefinition
antipovitism the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values
conflict theory a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited resources
contructivism an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be
culture a group's shared practices, values, and beliefs
dramatical analysis a technique sociologists use in which they view society through the metaphor of theatrical performance
dynamic equilibrium a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society work together properly
dysfunctions social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society
figuration the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of an individual and the society that shapes that behavior
function the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to structural continuity
functionalism a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up society
generalized others the organized and generalized attitude of a social group
grand theories an attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why societies form and why they change
hypothesis a testable proposition
latent functions the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process
macro-level a wide-scale view of the role of social structures within a society
manifest functions sought consequences of a social process
micro-level theories the study of specific relationships between individuals or small groups
paradigms philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations and the experiments performed in support of them
positivism the scientific study of social patterns
qualitative sociology in-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data
quantitative sociology statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants
reification an error of treating an abstract concept as though it has a real, material existence
significant others specific individuals that impact a person's life
social facts the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life
social institutions patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs
social solidarity the social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, and religion
society a group of people who live in a defined geographical area who interact with one another and who share a common culture
sociological imagination the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other people, as as to history in general and societal structures in particular
sociology the systematic study of society and social interaction
symbolic interactionsm a theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and symbols)
theory a proposed explanation about social interactions or society
verstehen a German word that means to understand in a deep way
qualitative design Design is generally based on a social constructivism perspective. Research problems become research questions based on prior research experience. Data collection involves interview, observation, and/or archival (content) data.
quantitative design Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.
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