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Acetylcholine NT found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Associated with Alzheimer's Disease, the loss of acetylcholine in neurons that connect with the hippocampus.
Catecholamines NT's: epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Catecholamines play an important role in emotions. Loosely classified as monoanimes, or biogenic amines.
Norepinephrine AKA Noradrenaline, involved in controlling alertness and wakefulness. Implicated in mood disorders (depression, mania). Too much = mania. Too little = depression
Dopamine NT plays an important role in movement and posture. High concentrations are normally found in the basal ganglia (which helps make our movements smooth and our posture steady)
Dopamine Hypothesis ...in schizophrenia. It argues that delusions, hallucinations, and agitation associated with schizophrenia arise from either too much dopamine or from oversensitiveity.
Evidence for dopamine hypothesis 1 Drugs like amphetamines, if used over a period of time, can produce excessive levels of dopamine in the brain inhance the action of domamine at synapse >amphetamine induced psychosis, similar to paranoid schizophrenia. speed & crank
Evidence for dopamine hypothesis 2 The antipsychotics prescribed are called Phenothiazines, through to reduce the sensitivity of dopamine receptors. < sensative = > of psychotic symptoms. Adderall, Vyvanse, and Dexedrine.
Tardive dyskinesia side effect of antipsychotics as they interfere with dopamine transmission
Parkinson's Disease PD through to occur due to a loss of dopamine-sensitive neurons in Basal Ganglia. Disruption of transmission leads to resting tremors and jerky movements.
L Dopa Treats PD, synthetic substance that increases dopamine levels in the brain, can lead to an oversupply of Dopamine & produce psychotic symptoms in parkinson's pts.
Serotonin Loosely classified as monoamine or biogenicamine transmitter. Role in regulating mood, eating, sleeping & arousal. much = mania, little = depression. Lead to development of SSRIs-Prozac
Monoamine theory of depression 2 theories of levels of norepinephrine and serotonin leading to maina and depression.
GABA- Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid Produces inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and is throught to play an important role in stabilizing neural activity in the brain. GABA exerts its effects by causing hyperpolarization in the postsynaptic membrane.
Peptides 2 or more amino acids joined together are also involved in neurotransmission. Exp: Endorphins, natural pain killers produced in the brain
Sedative-hypnotic drugs Depressants, act to slow down the functioning fo the CNS. Low doses, they reduce anxiety, Med-sedation, High-coma. Synergistic(additative in effect)-alcohol and barbituates make a dangerous combination-coma
Sedative drugs Benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Generally these drugs facilitate and enhance the action of GABA which stabilizes brain activity. Potentially potent tranquilizers often use as sedatives. Valium is a benzo.
How do illegal and psychiatric drugs produce their main effects? Modifying neuotransmissions
Korsakoff's syndrome produces even more serious disturbance in memory, anterograde amneisa. Traced to a vitamin deficiency in thiamin (Vitamin B 1). Deficienty that often occurs in chronic alcoholics.
Behvaioral stimulants Class of drugs that increase behavioral activity by increasing motor activity or by counteracting fatigue.
Amphetamines speed up the CNS in ways that mimic the actions of Sympathetic NS. Thought to stimulate receptors for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonine.
Antidepressiants Behavioral stimulants, use to treat depression. Elevate mood, increase overall activity level and appetite, and improve sleep patterns.
Tricyclics Antidepressiants Tricyclic thought to reduce depression by facilitating the transmission of norepinephrine or serotinin at the synapse. They inhibit the action of an enzyme called MAO (normally breaks down & deactivates norepinephrine and serotonin in the synapse.
SSRI-Select Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Prozac inhibits the reuptake of serotonin, increasing the supply.
Methylphenidate Ritaline, amphetamine, used to treat hyperactive children who suffer from ADD. Increases alertness and decreases motor activity in hyperactive children.
Antipsychotic Drugs Thorazine, chlorpromazine, phenothiazine, and haloperidol (Haldol) Block receptor sites for dopamine
Lithium carbonate Perscribed as a mood stabilizer for bipolar, reduces 70-90% of symptoms, extremely good at taking care of manic symptoms
Narcotics Opium, Heroin, and Morphine, most effective pain relieving drugs available. They bind to the opiate receptors in your brain where endorphins would normally bind.
Psychededlics Drugs that alter sensory perception and cognitive processes. Mescaline, psilocybin, and cannibis
Endocrine System Other internal communication network, uses chemical messengers called hormones. Associated with slow, continuous bodily processes
GABA Associated with anxiety disorders Epinephrine (adrenaline): A hormone associated with “fight or flight” responses; effects include increased sugar output of liver; increased heart rate.
Androgens Male hormones during critical stages of fetal development. Most important one-testosterone. Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome-if the fetus does not produce or can’t use androgens, it becomes a female.
Gland: Hypothalamus Controls release of pituitary hormones
Gland: Pituitary Often called “the master gland” triggers hormones secretion in many other endrocrine glands.
Gonadotropins During puberty Pituitary releases gonadoptropic hormones-activates an increase in hormone production by ovaries or testes. Follicle-stimulating hormone (development of ovarian follicle) and Luteinizing hormone (ovulation)
Thyroid Affects metabolism rate; growth and development
Adrenal Medulla Produces adrenaline (epinephrine), which increases sugar output of lives; also increases heart rate; “fight or flight” response
Ovaries Estrogen stimulates female sex characteristics; progesterone prepares uterus for implantation for embryo
Testes Testosterone produces male sex characteristics; relevant to sexual arousal
Ablation AKA Extirpation refers to any surgically induced brain lesion.
Aphasias Greek- a = not phasia = speech. Broca’s aphasia-inability to produce speech. Wernicke’s aphasias-inability to understand spoken language
Agnosia Perceptual recognition. Greek = not knowing. A person sees something but cannot recognize it or say what it is. Results from damage to the cortical area.
Apraxia Impairment in the org of motor action. Can't execute a simple motor response to a verbal command-step-by-step sequence entailed in everyday acts-arises from association areas which org simple motor movements into predictable voluntary acts.
Dementias Neurological disorders char by a loss in intellectual functioning. Alzheimers, Huntingtons chorea and Parkinsons disease.
Reticular Formation Neural structure located in brain stem; keep our cortex awake and alert. If the connecting fiber was damaged, a person would sleep most of the day.
Electroencephalograph-EEG Records brain waves. 4 kinds: beta, alpha, theta, and delta. 5th corresponds to REM sleep. 90 min sleep cycle. BAT-D Bats sleep during the day Beta, Alpha, Theta-Delta
Awake Brain Waves Beta and Alpha Waves
Sleep Stage 1 Theta Waves-EEG picks up on sleep spindles-short bursts of alpha waves. Slower frequencies, and the waveform becomes irregular and jagged. Size/voltage increases
Sleep Stage 2 Theta waves & becomes progressively slower; K complexes until only a few sleep waves are seen.
Sleep Stage 3 EEG activity grows progressively slower until only a few sleep waves per second are seen. Low frequency, high voltage sleep wave are called delta waves. Delta = Deeply Asleep
Sleep Stage 4 Delta Waves- Deepest sleep state-delta waveform reaches its slowest rate and the sleep spindles are at their steepest. Very hard to wake someone
REM Sleep Most time here than any other sleep during the lifespan. It’s called desynchronized sleep/paradoxical sleep. Waves look like beta brain waves, (But they're desynchronized) our muscle tone remains relaxed. Our limbs are relaxed, eyes constantly moving.
James-Lange Theory Argues that we recognize emotions based on how our body reacts; “we feel sorry b/c we cry, angry b/c we strike, afraid b/c we tremble
Cannon Bard Theory Argued that emotions reflect physiological arousal of the ANS and specific neural circuits in the brain. Emotional responses also include simultaneous physiological arousal of the sympathetic NS.
Schachter-Singer Theory Argued that unspecified physiological arousal will be labeled as different emotions
Walter Cannon Physiologist who studied the ANS, including flight or flight reactions; investigated homeostasis; and with Bard, proposed the Cannon-Bard theory of emotions
Eric Kandel Demonstrated that simple learning behavior in sea snails (Aplysia) is associated with changes in neurotransmission. He touched their gills until they stopped instinctually withdrawing them.
Heinrick Kluver and Paul Bucy Studied loss of normal fear & rage reactions in monkeys resulting from damage to temporal lobes; also studied amygdala's roel in emotions. Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
A.R. Luria Russian neurologist who studied how brain damage leads to impairment in sensory, motor, and language functions
Brenda Milner Studied severe anterograde amnesia in H.M. pt whose hippocampus & temporal lobes were removed surgically to control epilepsy-anterograde amnesia
James Olds and Peter Milner Demonstrated existence of pleasure center in the brain using self-stimulation studies in rats-Septum/Septual region
Wilder Penfield Canadian neurosurgeon who used electrodes and electrical stimulation techniques to map out different parts of the brain during surgery
Stanley Schacter and J.E. Singer Proposed Schachter-Singer theory of emotions
Sir Charles Sherrington English physiologist who first inferred the existence of synapse
Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga Investigated functional differences btw left and right cerebral hemispheres using "split Brain" pts
C. Wernicke German neurologist who IDed the part of the brain primarily associated with understanding spoken language i.e. Wernicke's area.
Created by: greggk2013