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ASRT Rad Pro Eye

Radiation Protection of the Eye

QuestionAnswer
What is the protective outer layer of the eye, or globe a. tunica fibrosa b. tunica vasculosa c. tunica nervosa d. tunica pigmenta a. tunica fibrosa
Dislocation of the eye ball foreward through the anterior orbit is a condition known as a. strabismus b. endophthalmos exophthalmos d. keratitis c. exophthalmos
which of the following are orbital defense agianst infection a. adipose deposits in the connective tissue b. the lubricating effects of blinking c. the structure of the zygoma d. arterial branching patterns of the globe b. the lubricating effects of blinking
Which of the following structures encases and protects the globe and refracts light a. retina b. choroid c. cornea d. lens c. cornea
older, damaged cells of the corneal epithelium are shed from the eye during blinking and tearing. The cells in this layer are repopulated every _ weeks a.1-2 b. 2-3 c. 3-4 d. 4-5 a. 1-2
which layer of the cornea represents 90% of its thickness and thus is an important influence on the cornea's structure and function a. bowman membrane b. stroma c. descemet membrane d. chromatin b. stroma
which of the following are functions of the uvea 1. clear particulate matter from the ocular surface 2. minimize the reflection of light once it enters the eye 3. provide nutrients to the cornea and lens a.1,2 b.1,3 c.2,3 d.1,2,3 c 2 & 3
Which of these lens structures intercepts the most energetic wavelengths of visible light energy and tend to occur at higher concentrations in infants than adults a. crystallins b. capsules c. chromophores d. fiber cells c. chromophores
which of the following statements are true about the fiber cells of the lens 1.fiber cells contain more cholesterol than any other cell in the human body 2. fiber cells produce crystalin a protein that helps determine how well the lens refracts light b. 1,3
WHich of the following statements are true about the fiber cells of the lens CONT 3. the loss of fiber cells contributes to the formation of cataracts a. 1,2 b. 1,3 c. 2,3 d 1,2,3,4 b 1,3
which layer of the film reduces evaporation and gives the tear film structural integrity and stability a. mucoid b. middle aqueos c. anterior lipid d. goblet cell c anterior lipid
_ trigger aversion reflexes when potentially dangerous intense light hits the retina a. neuron ganglia
Which retinal layer supplies the retina with critical nutrients a.inner plexiform layer b. retinal pigmented epithelium c. photoreceptor neuroepithelium d. outer nuclear layer b. retinal pigmented epithelium
the process by which rod and cone cells transform light energy into nerve impulses is known as photoreceptor a. transformation b. translation c. transmutation d. transduction d. transduction
when photoreceptor cells are not stimulated by light, they continuously release a neurotransmitter called _ which controls the physiology of downstream neurons a. melbomian b. crystallin c. glutamate d. melanopsin c. glutamate
What is the unit of absorbed dose a. sievert b. gray c. joule d. roentgen equivalent man b Gray (Gy)
which of the following are characteristics of deterministic radiation effects 1. the severity of damage to tissues is dose dependent 2. The effects tend to be delayed, appearing years or even decades after exposure b. 1 & 3
which of the following are characteristics of deterministic radiation effects CONT'D 3. A dose threshold exists such that the probability of damage from low doses is negligible a. 1 & 2 b. 1 & 3 c. 2 & 3 d. 1, 2, 3, b 1 & 3
Radiation-induced cataracts can result from a single high dose or from chronic low-dose exposure of the lens, whih is why occupational exposures over time represent a major concern for fluoroscopy operators a.True b.False A.True
Radiation can cause complex cellular _ affects in which the exposure of a given cell population affects radiosensitivity of other cells a. collateral b. chaperone c. proximity d. bystander d. Bystander
The ALARA principle is based on the _ model a. precautionary risk b. deterministic dose effect c. hormesis d. linear no-threshhold d. linear no-threshhold
Which of the following anatomical structures is known to be more sensitive to radiation damage than the others structures a. liver b. bladder c. lung d. eye d eye
Children are up to _ times more sensitive to tissue and DNA damage from ionizing radiation, than are adults a. 6 b. 8 c. 10 d. 12 c 10
Fluoro ops can assume that if the eye and orbit are no the targets of an interventional procedure, then there is no rad dose to the visual systems of pt's and personnel a. True b. False b. False
The risk of any radiation induced cancer from a single fluoro exam is approximately _% per Sv a. 5 b. 6 c. 7 d. 8 a.5%
According to the article, which cancer of the eyelid has been linked to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet sunlight a. orbital lymphoma b. retinoblastoma c. sebaceous carcinoma d. choroidal hemangioma c. sebaceous carcinoma
Which of the following statements about rad retinopathy are true 1. Fractionated rad treatment of > 1.8 Gy per fraction appears to increase the risk of radiation retinopathy 2. this disorder is caused by loss of vascular endothelial cells in retina c 2 & 3
Which of the following statements about rad retinopathy are true CONT 3. The condition is a classic example of deterministic radiation injury, with a dose threshold and dose severity relationship c 2& 3
what is another name for corneal ulcers a. hordeolum b. blepharitis c. conjunctivitis d. keratitis d. keratitis
A single well-defined lower dose threshold has been established for radiation cateracts A.True B Flase A. True
Researchers have studied sex differences in rad cataract risk. According to some case-control studies, which group has higher rates of cataracts a.nonsmoking M older 50 b.middle-aged M w/asthma c.W receiving hormone replacement therapy d. postmenopausal W D. Postmenopausal women
According to the International Commission on Radiological protection, the annual limit for occupational exposure to the eye lense is _ mSv a. 150 b. 175 c. 200 d. 225 A 150 mSv
based on studies of atomic bomb survivors published in the 60's, experts believe that radiation cataract formation requires a single dose of 1.3 to _ Gy a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 a. 2
A recent study of cateract formation among rad tech's found that workers with high average lifetime occ rad doses to the eye significantly more likely to develop cataracts after 20 yrs. The author questioned b. there is a safe lower dose threshold for cataract formation
The author questioned CONT a geographic diff in ultraviolet light exp to the eyes influence catarac formation b. there is a safe lower dose threshold for cataract formation b. there is a safe lower dose threshold for cataract formation
The authors questioned CONT c. the use of fluoro should be curtailed because of potential damage to the eyes d. dry eye syndrome was related to radioinduced cataract formation b. there is a safe lower dose threshold for cataract formation
According to the article why have rad doses and reports on significant tissue injury from interventional fluoro procedures increased over the past 2 decades a. Pro Org's have not established safety standards for fluoro procedures d. More complex and time consuming
Why have rad doses of significant tissue CONT b. manufacturers have not incorperated dose minimization technology in fluoro equipment c. a great no of PT's are eldery d. Procedures are more complex & time consimong d. More complex and time consuming
Which of the following is not a principle used to manage rad exposure to PT's & Health care personnel a. duration b. distance c. protection d. contrast D. Contrast
with respect to fluoro dosimetry which measurement is calculated as the air kerma across the x-ray beam and is used as a proxy for PT dose a. radiation field gradient b. reference dose index c. cumulative kerma sum d. kerma-area product d. kerma-area product
Switching from continuous fluoro mode to pulsed mode of 15 pulses per second can reduce the radiation dose by as much as _% a. 20 b. 22 c. 24 d. 26 b 22
Which of the following is a sentinel event requiring a PT to be monitored for radiation injury? 1.Peak skin dose exceeds 2,000 mGy 2. reference point air kerma exceeds 5K mGy 3. Fluoro procedure exceeds 1 hr a. 1,2 b.1,3 c. 2,3 d. 1,2,3 c 2 & 3
According to the article, which of the following is not a QA program component a. signage near the fluoro room reminding staff to use eye shielding b. periodic review of fluoro protocols that help minimize dose to the eye d calibration of fluoro equipment
NOT part of QA program CONT c. continuing education concerning eye protection d, Calibration of fluoro equipment d calibration of fluoro equipment
if fluoro personnel fail to report doses for less than _ % of procedures, the facility should consider implementing new radiation safety training and continuing education a. 95 b. 85 c. 75 d. 65 a. 95
Which of the following patient characteristics can effect the risk of radiation injury to the eyes, particularly from high-dose procedures a. asthma b. small body mass c. presbyopia d. fair skin b small body mass
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