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# radiology 1

### human radiology positioning

Question | Answer |
---|---|

23. Which parts of the sacrum form the joints with the ilia of the pelvis? | auricular surfaces |

24. The AP projection that demonstrates the dens using the Fuchs method differs from the AP projection (open mouth) because the Fuchs method: | extends the chin and keeps the mouth closed |

25. The radiographer should not use the Fuchs method to obtain the AP projection of the dens if the patient is: | suspected to have a fracture or degenerative disease |

32. Which evaluation criterion does not apply to the AP axial projection of the cervical vertebral column? | C1 and C2 should be seen without mandibular superimposition |

33. Which projection of the cervical vertebral column requires an SID 72"? | lateral projection |

34. Which maneuver should be used to help obtain maximum depression of the shoulders in the lateral projection of the cervical vertebral column? | suspend respiration after full expiration |

35. What should be done so that the magnified shoulder farthest from the IR is projected below the lower cervical vertebrae for the lateral projection of the cervical vertebrae? | direct a horizontal CR to C4 |

36. What should be done to prevent mandibular rami from superimposing cervical vertebrae in the lateral projection of the cervical vertebral column? | elevate the chin |

37. What should be done to reduce the magnification caused by the increased OID distance in lateral projections of the cervical vertebrae? | use a 72" SID |

38. Which projection of the cervical vertebral column uses the same central ray direction and centering as hyperextension and hyperflexion studies of the cervical vertebrae? | lateral projection |

39. Which projection of the cervical vertebrae demonstrates the spinous processes elevated and widely separated? | hyperflexion lateral projection |

40. Which projection of the cervical vertebrae demonstrates the spinous processes depressed and in close approximation? | hyperextension lateral projection |

41. Which projection of the cervical vertebrae should produce a radiographic image showing the patient's mandibular body nearly perpendicular to the lower border of the radiograph? | hyperflexion lateral projection |

42. Which projection for cervical vertebrae must be exposed with a horizontal and perpendicular central ray? | lateral |

43. How should the central ray be directed for AP axial oblique projections of the cervical vertebral column? | 15 to 20 degrees cephalically |

44. How should the central ray be directed for PA axial oblique projections of the cervical vertebral column? | 15 to 20 degrees caudally |

45. Which projections of the cervical vertebral column best demonstrates the intervertebral foramina? | AP axial oblique projection |

46. Which position of the cervical vertebral column best demonstrates the left intervertebral foramina with the central ray angled 15 to 20 degrees cephalad? | RPO |

47. Which position of the cervical vertebral column best demonstrates the right intervertebral foramina with the central ray angled 15 to 20 degrees caudad? | RAO |

48. How many degrees from either the AP or the PA position should the entire body be rotated for oblique projections of the cervical column? | 45 degrees |

49.Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP projection (Fuchs method) of the cervical vertebrae? | the entire dens should be seen through the foramen magnum |

50. Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP axial projection of the cervical vertebrae? | the spinous processes should be equidistant to the pedicles |

51.Which evaluation criterion pertains to the lateral projection of the cervical vertebrae? | all seven cervical vertebrae should be demonstrated |

52.Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP axial oblique projection of the cervical vertebrae? | the intervertebral foramina should be open the those farthest from the IR well demonstrated |

53. Which evaluation criterion pertains to the PA axial oblique projection of the cervical vertebrae? | the intervertebral foramina should be open with those closest to the IR well demonstrated |

54. Which projection should be included in a cervical series if the lateral projection does not demonstrate the C7 vertebrae? | lateral projection (swimmer's technique) |

55. For the lateral projection (swimmer's technique) of the cervical vertebrae, how and where should the central ray be directed? | perpendicular to the intervertebral disk space of C7 and T1 |

56. Which of the following structures are best demonstrated with the lateral projection (swimmer's technique)? | lower cervical vertebrae |

57. For the AP projection of the thoracic vertebral column, where should the central ray be directed on the anterior chest wall? | slightly below the sternal angle |

58. With reference to the patient, where should the top border of the IR be positioned for the AP projection of the thoracic vertebral column? | 1.5 to 2 inches above the tope of the shoulders |

59. For the AP projection of the thoracic vertebral column with the patient in the supine position, why should the patient's hips and knees be flexed? | to reduce dorsal kyphosis |

60. Which projection best demonstrates the intervertebral foramina of the thoracic vertebral column? | AP projection of the thoracic vertebral column |

61. When performing the lateral projection for the thoracic vertebrae, what is the preferred procedure that should be performed with the long axis of the vertebral column is not horizontal? | lateral projection |

62. To what level of the body should the CR be directed for the lateral projection of the thoracic vertebral column? | elevate the lower or upper thoracic region with a radiolucent support |

63. To what level of the body should the CR be directed for the lateral projection of the thoracic vertebral column? | inferior angle of the scapula |

64. What compensation should be made in the lateral projection of the thoracic vertebral column on a recumbent patient when the lower thoracic region is not parallel with the table? | angle the CR 10 to 15 degrees cephalad |

65. Which of the following structures are best demonstrated with the lateral projection (swimmer's technique)? | upper thoracic vertebrae |

66. Which projection of the vertebral column best demonstrates kyphosis? | lateral projection of the thoracic vertebral column |

67. Which projection of the vertebral column best demonstrates scoliosis? | PA projection of the thoracic vertebral column |

68. Which projection of the vertebral column best demonstrates lordosis? | lateral projection of the lumbar column |

69. Why should the patient flex the hips and knees for the AP projection of the lumbar vertebral column? | to reduce the lordotic curvature |

70. How should the IR be positioned the for AP projection of the lumbar vertebrae and sacrum? | centered on the level of the iliac crests |

71. Which positioning maneuver should be performed to reduce the normal lordotic curvature for the AP projection of the lumbar vertebral column? | flex the hips and the knees |

72. Which plane or line of the patient should be centered on the midline of the table for the AP projection of the lumbar vertebral column? | midsagittal |

73. Where should the CR be directed for the AP projection of the lumbar vertebral column for a lumbosacral examination? | L4 |

74. Which plane or line of the patient should be centered on the midline of the table for the lateral projection of the lumbar vertebral column? | midcoronal |

75. Which projections of the lumbar vertebral column best demonstrates intervertebral foramina? | lateral projection |

76. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the lateral projection of the lumbar vertebral column when the vertebral column is parallel with the table? | perpendicular |

77. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the lateral projection of the lumbar vertebral column when the vertebral column is NOT parallel with the table? | 5 degrees caudad for males |

78. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the lateral projections of L5-S1 when the lumbar vertebral column when the vertebral column is parallel with the table? | 8 degrees caudad for females |

79. Which projection of the lumbar vertebral column best demonstrates zyapophyseal joints? | perpendicular |

80. Which vertebral structures are best demonstrated if a supine patient is rotated 45 degrees with the right side elevated and a perpendicular CR is directed at the lumbar vertebrae? | AP oblique projection |

81. Which vertebral structures are best demonstrated with the AP oblique projection of the lumbar vertebral column with the patient RPO? | zyapophyseal joints on the left side |

82. Which vertebral structures are best demonstrated with the AP oblique projection of the lumbar vertebral column with the patient LPO? | zyapophyseal joints of the right side |

83. Which positioning error most likely occurred if the zygapophyseal joints were not well demonstrated and the pedicle was quite anterior on the vertebral body in AP oblique projection radiographs of the lumbar vertebral column? | the patient was not rotated enough |

84. Which positioning error most likely occurred if the zygapophyseal joints were not well demonstrated and the pedicle was quite posterior on the vertebral body in AP oblique projection radiographs of the lumbar vertebral column? | the patient was rotated too much |

85.Which projection of the vertebral column demonstrates the "Scottie dog"? | oblique projection of the lumbar vertebral column |

86. What is demonstrated if the Scottie dog is not well visualized? | zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar vertebrae |

87. How many degrees of body rotation are necessary for the AP oblique projection of the lumbar vertebral column? | 45 degrees |

88. Which projection of the lumbar vertebral column places the midsagittal plane perpendicular to the IR? | AP projection |

89. Which projection of the lumbar vertebral column places the midsagittal plane parallel with the IR? | lateral projection |

92. Which projection best demonstrates the left SI joint? | AP oblique projection with the patient in RPO position |

93. How many degrees of body rotation from the supine position are required for AP oblique projections of the SI joints? | 25 to 30 degrees |

94. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for AP axial projections of the sacrum? | 15 degrees cephalad |

95. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed if it is necessary to have the patient prone for a PA axial projection of the sacrum? | 15 degrees caudad |

96. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for AP projections of the coccyx? | 10 degrees caudad |

97. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed if it is necessary to have the patient prone for a PA projection of the coccyx? | 10 degrees cephalad |

98. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for lateral projections of the sacrum? | perpendicular |

99. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for lateral projections of the coccyx? | perpendicular |

100. Which projection of the Ferguson method should be performed to best evaluate scoliosis? | upright PA |

91. Which projection best demonstrates the right SI joint? | AP oblique projection with the patient in the LPO position |