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Module 1 diabetes

Insulin The primary effect of insulin is to stimulate absorption of glucose after a meal in order to replenish intracellular glycogen stores
Glucagon stimulating glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis in liver and fat break down adipose tissue Activating intracellular lipase in adipocytes, resulting in the liberation of large quantities of FFAs, while inhibiting triglyceride storage in the liver
Carbohydrates hydrolyzed in small intestines to glucose, galactose, and fructose
Glucose, galactose, and fructose (monosaccharides) are abosrbed by intestinal wall and most transported to liver
liver holds 7% of its weight in glycogen
Skeletal Muscle Holds 2% of its weight in glycogen
Organs and Muscles and cells that except glucose brain, liver, red blood cells and pancreatic beta-cells insulin independent
excess glucose directed to and synthesized to fatty acid and synthesized to triglycerides
Short term fasting Between meals- HGP plays key role in Blood sugar maintenance through glyocenesis and glycogenolysis
Glycogenolysis Primary source of glucose for 8 to 12 hours- Production of glucose from noncarbohydrate (create glucose from noncarbohydrate source
Glucogenesis Conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage ( creation of glycogen)
Glycogenolysis Breakdown of glycogen
Glycolysis oxidation of glucose for use as energeny
HGP Hepatice Glucose Production
FFA Free Fatty Acid
Insulin on liver ↑ Glucose uptake ↑ Glycolysis and production of acetyl CoA (i.e., use of glucose for energy) ↑ Glycogen synthesis and storage ↓ Glycogenolysis ↓ Gluconeogenesis ↑ Fatty acid synthesis
Insulin on muscle ↑ Glucose uptake ↑ Glycolysis and production of acetyl CoA (i.e., use of glucose for energy) ↑ Glycogen synthesis and storage ↓ Glycogenolysis ↑ Amino acid uptake ↑ Protein synthesis ↓ Proteolysis
Insulin on Adipose tissue ↑ Glucose uptake ↑ Fatty acid synthesis and triglyceride storage ↓ Lipolysis
Basal Insulin Secreted at rate of 0.5-1 unit insulin per hour approximately 40 to 50% of daily insulin
Types of Meals that stimulate both glucagon and insulin at the same time High protein meals
MODY Maturity onset diabetes of the young
Maturity onset diabetes of young due to autosomal dominant mutations that lead to hyperglycemia, has been linked to over 20 genes
LADA Latent Autoimmune diabetes of adults- slow onset type 1
Ketosis-prone Type 2 Diabetes Severe beta Cell dysfunction appear to underline ketosis-prone
Diabetic Endocrinopathies Impaired glucose tolerance and diagnosed diabetes are frequently associated with acromegaly and hypercortisolism (Cushing syndrome)
Diagnostic criteria A1C>6.5%, Fasting greater than or equal to 126, 2-hour fasting greater than or equal to 200mg/dl during an oral tolerance test, Random ≥200 mg/dL with symptoms of uncontrolled hyperglycemia (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia) or hyperglycemic crisis
Prediabetes diagnosis A1C 5.7-6.4%, fasting glucose 100-125mg/dl, 2 hour fasting glucose 140-199mg/dl during an oral glucose tolerance test
Gestational Diabetes diagnosis test 75-g OGTT, with measurement fasting, 1h and 2h,
How long should fast for gestational diabetes and when should test be run Fasting for 8 hours, run at 24-28 weeks for women not previously diagnosed
results for diagnosis of gestational diabetes The diagnosis any of the following are exceeded: — Fasting ≥92 — 1 hour ≥180 — 2 hours ≥153
Created by: countryrph05



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