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Medical Review

There are 4 types of drugs: Non-Rx/OTC, Legend/Rx, Controlled/Schedule, and Dietary Supplements
Non-Rx drugs are also known as: OTC
Legend drugs are: drugs that requires a Rx.
Controlled or Scheduled drugs require: restrictive regulations because of their potential for abuse.
Dietary Supplements are not: regulated by the FDA because suppliers have not made therapeutic claims.
The most common solid dosage forms are: tablets
______ dissolve when placed between the cheek and gums. buccal tablets
_____ dissolve when placed under the tongue. sublingual tablets
______ are designed to be easily chewed then swallowed. chewable tablets
_______ uses a chemical reaction to hasten tablet dissolution. These tablets should be dissolved in liquid before ingestion. Effervescent tablets
_______ are coated to delay the release of medication until the tablet has reached the intestinal tract. Enteric-coated tablets
_____ are coated to mask taste. Film- coated tablets
______ are powdered, granule, or beaded medication that is enclosed in a shell of hard or soft gelatin. Capsule
_____ are made from powdered materials and combined with a sticky material to make a round mass. Pills
You should not use the term pill to refer to any solid forms, you should: use specific terms such as tablets or capsules to refer to specific medications.
__________ are formulated to produce a constant release of medication over an extended period of time. Controlled Release products
______ provide medication to the oral cavity. Pastilles, Lozenges
_______ have a gummy or hard consistency. Troches
______ are solid forms that have been crushed. Powders
_____ are designed to be inserted into a body cavity. Suppositories
_____ are inserted and dissolved into the vagina. Vaginal tablets
_______ are prepared by a complete dissolution of medication in a suitable liquid. Solutions
____ are solutions that contain sugar. Syrups
_____ are solutions that contain alcohol. Tinctures
____ solutions that are not completely dissolved. They have particles that settle to the bottom and should be shaken before taking. Suspensions
______ require the addition of distilled water and is stored in powder form to extend shelf life. Reconstituted liquids
_____ contain oil and water to form two visible layers. They must be shaken before taking. Emulsions
_____ contains clear, sweet combinations of water and alcohol. Elixirs
______ contain plant extracts as the active ingredient in water and/or alcohol. Fluid extracts and tinctures
______ contain substances that evaporate quickly in ambient conditions. Spirits and essences
Gas has been incorporated into a liquid and when released the entrapped gas gives the product a light consistency. Foam
____ is used to apply medication to the scalp. Shampoo
_______are a liquid preparation which dries to form a flexible film that can removed from the skin. Colloids
_______ provide medication to the oral cavity by swishing and spitting/swallowing. Mouthwash
_____ are sterile products administered by injection or infusion in order to bypass the gastrointestinal tract. Parenteral medications
Parenteral medications requires ________ to reduce contamination. aseptic technique
_______ are placed in a nebulizer to provide medication to the respiratory tract. Inhalation solutions
______ apply medication to the skin and are greasy and difficult to remove. Ointments
_____ moisturize skin without being greasy. Creams
______ are similar to creams but thinner in consistency and covers greater body area that is heavily covered with hair. Lotions
Semi-solids that contains very small particles of liquid medication. Gels & Jellies
Ointments to which a large quantity of insoluble solids have been added to make an ointment stiff. Pastes
_________ contains various substances that give a heat producing effect used for pain relief of muscle aches. Liniments
Quick and easy way to apply topical medication. Tape
Hold medication in a reservoir to provide a continual supply of medication over a period of time. Transdermal patches
Medication travels through tiny particles or within water droplets. Aerosols
Surgically placed subcutaneously to release medication over a period of time. Implants
As patient chews, medication is released. chewing gum
Delivers medication to the respiratory tract and required coordination and timing. Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI)
Attached to a mouthpiece or mask and propels medication in the form of very fine particles or tiny droplets Nebulizers
Placed on inhaled medication canisters to improve a patient's administration technique. Spacers
Delivers medication to the nose. nasal spray
Allows patients to administer accurate doses of medication to the eye and ear easily. Eye/ear droppers
Commonly used to expel creams or foam into the vaginal canal. Plunger Applicator
A roller ball is placed on medication bottle to allow patients to apply topical medication without having to touch it with their hands. Roll-on Appilcation
Syringe size based on three factors: volume, increment markings, and size of the needle
Delivers paternal medication at a specific rate. Infusion Pumps
Process where drug is transported from the site of administration to the blood stream Absorption
Process where drug is delivered to specific organs and tissues in the body. Distribution
Disappearance of a drug when it chemically changes into another compound Metabolism
Process where drug is eliminated from the body, primarily by the kidney Excretion
Percentage or fraction of the dose that actually reaches the systemic circulation. Bioavailbility
When the effectiveness of two drugs is decreased when given together. therapeutic incompatibility
When two drugs from the same class are give together. therapeutic duplicaiton
Effects over than the desired ones. adverse effects
Severe adverse reaction to an administration of a drug. Anaphylactic Reaction
Effects that are unavoidable, predictable and widely reported. Side effects
Effects that are harmful and destructive to the body. Toxicities
Allergy to drugs that are chemically similar. Cross-Sensitivity
A change in magnitude or duration of the pharmacological response of one drug because of the presence of another drug. Drug Interaction
When two or more drugs combined together yield a response when the drugs by themselves are not enough Additive Response
Occurs when the effect of two or more drugs is greater than the sum of the drugs Synergistic Response
When a drug use for one indication cause an increase in severity of another indication Contraindicated
The risk-to-benefit ratio is the responsibility of the: physician
The Central Nervous System is composed of: the brain and the spinal cord
Where continued administration of drug is necessary to prevent physical and psychological withdrawal systems Dependence
A pattern of compulsive use Addiction
The need for larger doses to achieve the desired response Tolerance
Treats Insomnia Sedative Hypnotics
Treats muscle spasms Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
Treats seizures Anticonvulsants
Treats moderate or severe pain Narcotic Analgesics
Treats signs and symptoms of psychosis (ex schizophrenia) Antipsychotics
Treats depression Antidepressants
Treats nervousness and tension Antianxiety
Treats Narcolepsy, Hyperkinesis, and anorexiants CNS Stimulants
Treats Parkinsons Anti-Parkinsions
The peripheral nervous system is composed of: nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
Nerves that send messages back to the CNS Afferent nerves
Nerves that transmit messages from the CNS to the rest of the body Efferent nerves
Fight or flight, messenger is norepinephrine or epinephrine Sympathetic Nerves
Feed & Breed, messenger is acetylcholine Parasympathetic Nerves
Mimics the effects of endogenous chemicals by combining with receptors in the sympathetic nervous system, also referred to as adrenergic drugs Sympathomimetic Agents
Oppose the actions of natural messengers epinephrine and norepinephrine as their receptor sites, also referred to as adrenergic antagonists Sympatholytic Agents
Common suffix for Beat Blockers: -olol
Mimics the action of acetylcholine, also referred to as Cholingeric Agent Parasympathomimetic Agent
Inhibits or reverse the actions of the parasympathetic system, also referred to as Anticholingeric Parasympatholytic Agent
used in hospitals for patients going to surgery, blocks transmission of nerve impulses to muscles resulting in paralysis Neuromuscular Agent
used for minor surgery, blocks conduction of impulses along nerves and prevents sensation of pain from reaching the brain Anesthetic
These hormones are synthesized in various tissue types, released and act locally, and exert profound changes in the body. Local Hormones
These hormones are produced by one specific tissue, act throughout the body, and have a regulatory effect. Systemic hormones
A chemical neurotransmitter produced by the body during an allergic reaction Histamines
Hormones that are created during a chemical reaction at the site where an injury occurs. Prostaglandin
Inhibits the action of histamines. Antihistamines
This type of antihistamine crosses the brain barrier and antagonizes histamine. Sedating Antihistamines
This type of antihistamine does not cross the brain barrier and rarely any sedation occurs. Non Sedating Antihistamines
Blocks the enzyme system of the gastric cells that secrete gastric acid. Proton Pump Inhibitors
Male hormones, which are secreted by the testes, are responsible for the characteristic sexual changes in men Androgens
Female hormones, which are secreted by the ovaries, are responsible for the characteristic sexual changes in women Estrogens
Another name for oral birth control pills Oral Contraceptives
Federal law mandates that _____ be dispensed with oral contraceptives. package inserts
Female hormones secreted by the corpus luteum. Progestins
Hormones secreted by the adrenal gland. Corticosteriods
Hormones secreted by the pancreas of the Beta Cells, used mainly for type I diabetes Insulin
Promotes insulin release, used mainly for type II diabetes Oral Hypoglycemic Agents
Hypoglycemic agents have these common suffixes: -ides and -ones
Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland Oxytocics
Treats thyroid hormone deficiency Thyroid Hormones
Treats over secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) Anti-Thyroid Hormones
The Cardiovascular System is composed of: heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins
Obtained from the digitalis plant, Increases the muscle's contraction and improves irregular heartbeats Cardiac glycosides
Decrease the amount of blood that returns to the heart, which decreases the heart rate and the amount of work for the heart Antiangials
Treats peripheral vascular disease Vasodilators
Treats pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), reverses the effects of endothelin Endothelin Receptor Antagonists
Treats PAH or erectile dysfunction Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor (PDE 5)
Common suffixes for PDE 5 Inhibitors -fil
Blocks voltage-gated calcium channels and dilates coronary arteries Ca Channel Blockers
Prevents the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
Common suffixes for ACE inhibitors" -pril
Inhibits action at the beta receptors on the heart Beta Blocker
Common suffixes for Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB): -sartan
Inhibits the action at the alpha receptors: Alpha-Adrenergic Blocker
Reduces serum lipids and minimizes the rate of new fat deposition Antilipidemics
Common suffix for HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor: -statin
The renal system is composed of: the kidneys
Disease characterized by overproduction of uric acid that crystallizes in the joints gouts
Salts which are necessary in proper elimination to maintain normal body functions Electrolytes
Mechanism is to alter body's electrolytes pattern by prohibiting or enhancing excretion of electrolytes Diruetics
Thiazide Diuretics treats: hypertension
Loop Diuretics treats: heart failure
Weakest diuretic and usually used in combination with other diuretics: Potassium Sparing Diuretics
Produces an intense diuresis in a hospital setting Osmotic Diuretic
Allows body's defense mechanism to have time to destroy the mircoorganisms by inhibiting bacterial growth Bacterostatic
Kills mircoorganisms Bactericidal
Antibacterials are: not synthesized from microorganisms
Antibiotics are: synthesized from microorganisms
The different classes of antibiotics are: penicillins, cephalosporins, marcolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, glycyclcyclines, ketolides, aminoglycosides
To increase absorption, antibiotics should be: taken on an empty stomach.
Once reconstituted, antibiotics should have a: 10-14 day expiration
Patients with ____ should not be on beta blockers. asthma
Antifungals should be: protected from light and heat
Used to treat worm infections Antihelminthics
Treat amoeba infections Amebicides
Treats tuberculosis Antitubercular Agent
Drug name with suffix -vir are: Antiviral Agents
Antivirals treat: influenza, herpes virus, HIVS and AIDS
The three subcatergories of HIV and AIDs antivirals: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptae inhibitors, reverse transcriptae inhibitors, protease inhibitors
The uncontrolled growth of abnormal human cells cancer
Why is cancer difficult to treat? Drugs cannot differentiate between normal cells and cancer cells, so both normal and cancer cells are killed.
Very similar to normal substances in the cell, when absorbed by cells, it inhibits cellular metabolism (makes it unable to divide) Antimetabolites
If a techincian has skin contact with a cytotoxic drug: they should wash their hands with water and soap and seek medical attention
Prevent DNA replication, which kills cancer cells because they are very sensitive to DNA damage Alkylating Agents
Arrests mitotic division at the metaphase of cell division Vinca Alkaloids
Blocks asparagine dependent protein synthesis in tumor cells Asparaginase
Antibiotics used for cancer chemo treatment are ____________ and must be cleaned with a ________. biohazardous, spill kit
used as treatment of harsh side effects of chemotherapy to prevent too much normal cells from being killed leucovorin
Needles, syringes, or any other medical device containing aluminum should not be used with: cisplatin
A mixture of water, cells, proteins, and dissolved salts blood
Anemia due to decrease in circulating red blood cells Iron - deficiency anemia
Anemia due to increased circulation of immature abnormal red blood Megaloblastic anemia
Stops or slows blood clotting process Anticoagulants
Treats excessive bleeding Hemostatics
Decreases platelet aggregation and decreases unwanted clot formation Antithrombotics
Dissolves exsisting blood clots, decreases muscle damage associated with heart attacks, treats pulmonary emboli Thrombolytics
Decreases blood viscosity and helps to increase blood flow Hemorrheologic Agents
Some drugs can cause upset stomach as a side effect. To avoid this: the patient should take the drug with food
Necessary for normal body functions, not produced in the body and must be obtained from a well balanced diet Vitamins
Vitamins ADEK are what type of vitamins? Fat Soluble
Any other Vitamin other than ADEK are: Water Soluble
Vitamin A: skin and vision
Vitamin D: Ca regulation and bone formation
Vitamin E: Reproduction and ksin
Vitamin K: Blood cloting
Another name for Vitamin B1: Thiamine
Another name for Vitamin B2: Riboflavin
Another name for Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine
Another name for Vitamin B12: Cyanocobalamin
Used to treat elevated cholestrol Niacin/Nicotinic Acid
Another name for Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid
Used to treat megaloblastic acid Folic Acid
Mineral that is essential for bone and tooth formation Calcium
Mineral that prevents dental cativites Fluoride
Mineral that is absorbed by thyroid to prevention enlargement of thyroid Iodine
Needed for bone, protien, new cells, clotting blood, insulin function Magnesium
Mineral that blood contains in excess supply Phosphorus
Important for water balance, regulating muscle contractions, protein and glycogen synthesis, and nerve transmission Potassium
Essential element for all life, helps in maintaining normal electrolyte balance Sodium
Important for the formation of blood and oxygen transport Iron
Herbal Products can be: sold without being tested for saftey
A method for treating illness that uses very minor quantities of substances Homeopathy
Nitroglycerin should avoid: heat and be with a tightly sealed container to avoid moisture.
Women taking endothelin receptor antagonist drugs must: have a negative pregnancy test before starting treatment and monthly pregnancy test during treatment
Patients taking _____ medication should not be taking PDE5. nitrate
Created by: Michelle Lee



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