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Mr charles psyc ch3

psychology kelat chapter 3

An active neuron has an internal charge of _______ called resting potential -70 mV
An active neuron has an external charge of _______ called resting potential +70 mV
resting potential is generated by the uneven distribution of 4 major ions. Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, Anions
If channels open, Na+ would flood inside due to excessive positive charge of _____ on the outside and negative –70 mV on the inside. Na+
The movement of the ions is governed by 2 forces? oElectrostatic gradient (electrostatic) oConcentration gradient
cross freely through channels that are always open. Oxygen, CO2 , Urea, H2O
Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction the jumping of action potentials from node to node
Nodes of Ranvier gaps between myelin sheath
Myelin sheath allows signal to skip over 99% of axion, 100 times faster with sheath, Saltatory conduction is 120 meters per second
Brief gap between two neurons is called? the synapse or synaptic gap or synaptic cleft (axon to dendrite)
The preceding neuron is called? presynaptic
The later neuron is called? postsynaptic
The post synaptic membrane may be? a dendrite, a soma, or a rarely even an axon.
When action potential reaches terminal bouton... there is a Catacholamine (Ca++) that signals the release of neurotransmitters (NTs) from the vesicles in which they are contained.
The NTs then diffuse across the cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
The NT diffusion can be either: Depolarization or Hyperpolarization
Depolarization influx of Na+ (Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential-EPSP)
Hyperpolarization an outflow of K+ or an influx of Cl- (Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential-IPSP)
How are NTs removed from the Synapse? Diffusion (rare, Metabolism by enzymatic degradation-enzyme protein which changes rate of chemical reaction, destruction chemically of a chemical reaction, cuts in half or adds something to it. Recycle NT back into presynaptic terminal through re-uptake.
What is Temporal Summation? repeated stimuli within a brief time have a cumulative effect. Page in notes of diagram
Postsynaptic Neuron the cell that receives the message.
Presynaptic Neuron the neuron that delivers the synaptic transmission.
Unlike action potentials, which are always depolarizations, graded potentials... may be either depolarizations (excitatory) or hyperpolarizations (inhibitory). A graded depolarization is known as an Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP).
Spatial Summation -several synaptic inputs originating from separate locations combine their effects on a neuron.
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) temporary hyperpolarization membrane occurs when synaptic input opens gates for K+ ions to leave (carry a positive charge) or Cl- to enter the cell (carry negative charge)Inhibition more than excitation active brake suppresses excitation.
Spontaneous Firing Rate a periodic production of action potentials even without synaptic input. Relationship among EPSP and IPSP
Neurotransmitters are chemicals, at the synapse, one neuron releases chemicals that affect a second neuron.
What are the types of Neurotransmitters? *Amino Acids-contain amine group (NH2) •Peptides-chains amino acids (long polypeptide; longer protein •Acetylcholine (1-member “family”) similar to amino acid, except NH2 replaced by N(CH3)3 •Monoamines-NTs contain 1 amine group (NH2), metabol
Amino Acids acids containing an amine group (NH2)
Peptides chains of amino acids (a long chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide; a still loner chain is a protein. The distance among peptides, polypeptide, and protein are not firm.
Acetylcholine (a one-member “family”) a chemical similar to an amino acid, except that the NH2 group has been replaced by an N(CH3)3 group.
Monoamines neurotransmitters containing one amine group (NH2), formed by a metabolic change in certain amino acids
Purines category of chemicals including adenosine and several of its derivatives
Gases nitric oxide (NO) a gas released by many small local neurons and possibly others
Catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) closely related compounds because they contain a catechol group and an amine group.
Agonistic will have action equal or like normal neurotransmitter NT at that synapse.
Antagonistic if chemical blocks action of neurotransmitter NT, can be IPSP or EPSP
Direct Action if action is ON postsynaptic receptor direct
Indirect Action
Brain works mainly with _________ to block signals. IPSP (Inhibitory PostSynaptic Potential
What are the types of Neurotransmitters? Biological Amines (amino acids and their derivatives) Monoamines (only has one amine group - Nitrogen (NH2) Catecholamines – Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine Endolomines
How to tell an enzyme: First part of word is what the chemical will work on - primary substrate, Middle part of word tells what it does chemically, Suffix – ASE
Created by: eccharles77