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VCE Psychology 3&4

AOS 1 - Learning and the Neural Basis of Learning

What is Developmental Plasticity? The brain's natural ability (especially during infancy) to form new connections in order to process sensory information from environmental stimulation
What is the Plasticity of the Brain? It is the brains' flexibility and ability to adjust
What is Synaptogenesis? The rapid increase of the total number of synapses (increases tenfold in the first year of life)
What is the Sensitive Period in terms of learning? A period of time when an organism is more responsive to certain environmental stimuli or experiences
What is Experience-Dependant Learning? Learning that is dependant on exposure to specific experiences at any stage in development
What is Experience-Expectant Learning? Learning that occurs through an experience that takes place and that the brain is expecting
What is the Critical Period in learning? The specific period during which an organism is most vulnerable to the absence of certain stimuli or experiences
Define "Learning" A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
The mating dance of a bird is an example of... A fixed-action pattern
How do you know if Learning has taken place? We know learning has taken place by noting modifications in the responses of the organism to stimuli provided by the environment
Define "Reflex" Is an AUTOMATIC and INVOLUNTARY behaviour that dies not require prior experience and occurs the same way each time
Name 3 Newborn Reflexes 1. Sucking 2. Grasping 3. Rooting
What are Fixed-Action Patterns? They are an innate series of movements or behaviours that occur in almost all members of a species
Which species are Fixed-action Patterns more common? They are more common in lower order species such as insects and smaller vertebrates
Define "Maturation" A developmental process towards maturity, based on the orderly sequence of changes that occur in the nervous system and other bodily structures controlled by genes
What role does the the Hippocampus play in Learning? It sorts new declarative information and links to lobes (such as occipital for visual memory and written words)
Define "Conditioning" It is the process of learning associations between a stimulus in the environment (one event) and a behavioral response (another event)
Define "Classical Conditioning" A simple form of learning which occurs through repeated association of two (or more) different stimuli
Who was the Scientist/Psychologist most famous for their research into Classical Conditioning? Ivan Pavlov
Define "The Neutral Stimulus" The name given to the Conditioned Stimulus before it becomes conditioned
Define "The Conditioned Stimulus" The stimulus that is neutral at the beginning, but eventually causes a response because of the association with the unconditioned
Define "The Unconditioned Stimulus" Any stimulus that consistently produces a particular response (Stage 1 only)
Define "The Unconditioned Response" A response which occurs automatically when the UCS is present
Define "The Condition Response" The behaviour which is identical to the UCR but happens after aquisition
Define "Extinction" (in relation to Classical Conditioning) When the Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) is no longer presented with the Conditioned Stimulus(CS)
Define "Spontaneous Recovery" It occurs after extinction and if the
Define "Stimulus Generalisation" When an organism will respond by producing a CR to stimuli that is similar to the CS
Define "Stimulus Discrimination" When the organism will only respond to the CS and no other stimuli
What is Flooding? Direct contact with the anxiety or fear producing stimuli
Define "Aversion Therapy" Blocking and undesirable behaviour by associating it with an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus such as pain; disgust; nausea
What is "Operant Conditioning"? It is a type of learning in which consequences that follow a response determine whether the response is likely to be repeated
Define "Operant" Any response that acts on the environment to produce some kind of consequence
What is Operant Conditioning also known as? Instrumental Learning
What is the 3 Step Process of Operant Conditioning? 1. Discimative Stimulus (Antecedent) 2. Response (Behaviour) 3. Consequence
What is the Discrimative Stimulus? The stimulus (event/object) that precedes a particular response, signals the probable consequence and influences of the response
What is the Response? It is the VOLUNTARY behaviour that occurs in the presence of the Discrimative stimulus
What is the Consequence? It is the environmental event caused by the Response which is caused by the Discrimative Stimulus
Define "Reinforcement" Any stimulus (event or action) that subsequently or increases or decreases the likelihood of the response (behaviour) that is follows
What is "Positive Reinforcement"? A stimulus which strengthens a response by providing a pleasant or satisfying consequence
What is "Negative Reinforcement"? A stimulus that strengthens a response by the REDUCTION, removal or prevention of an unpleasant stimulus
What is "Positive Punishment"? Delivery of a stimulus following an undesirable behaviour
What is "Negative Punishment"? The removal of a stimulus following an undesired response
What is the "Order of Presentation"? The presentation of the
What is the "Schedule of Reinforcement"? Plan for how often a learnt response response is reinforcement (can be Continuous or Partial)
What is a Continuous Schedule of Reinforcement? When the individual always receives reward after giving correct responses
What is a Partial Schedule of Reinforcement? Only some of correct responses are rewarded (it is unpredictable)
What is "Fixed Ratio"? It is a set consequence after a certain number of correct responses
How effective is "Fixed Ratio"? It is most effective during acquisition
What is "Variable ratio"? A changing and unpredictable consequence after correct responses
How effective is "Variable Ratio"? Highly effective and highly resistant to extinction
What is "Fixed Interval"? It is a set consequence after a certain amount of time has elapsed
How effective is "Fixed Interval"? Moderately effective but inconsistent
What is "Variable Interval"? A changing and unpredictable consequence after a time has elapsed (eg. Fishing)
How effective is "Variable Interval"? Low but inconsistent
Define "Shaping" It is a procedure in which a reinforcer is given for a response that successively approximates and ultimately leads to the desired response or target behaviour
What is "Token Economy"? It is a setting in which an individual receives a token (reinforcer) for a desired behaviour
What is "Observational Learning"? It is learning by watching or listening to someone else
What are the 5 Steps of Observational Learning? 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation 5. Reinforcement
What are 3 types of Observational Learning? 1. Physical Routine 2. Socially Appropriate Behaviour 3. Emotional Responses
Define "Attention" (in relation to Observational Learning)? The observer actively watching and paying attention to the Model and what the Model is doing
Define "Retention" (in relation to Observational Learning)? The observers ability to make a mental representation
Created by: StormRider15