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Developmental Psyc

Kaplan

QuestionAnswer
Down's Symdorne Genetic anomaly in which the individual has an extra 21st chromosome. Varying levels of MR
PKU-Phenylketonuria degenerative genetic disorder of the NS. PKU results when the enzyme needed to digest phenylalanine, an amino acid in milk, is lacking. Infants screened, can avoid extreme effects with diet modifications.
Klinefleter's syndrome In males, extra X chromosome. XXY Sterile and MR
Turner's syndrome, Females, one X chromosome, failure to develop 2nd sex chars, physical abnormalities-short fingers, unusually shaped mouths.
Zygote stage The sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell and forms a single cell-zygote
Germinal period Fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and is implanted into uterine wall, 2 wks
Embryonic Period 8 wks after germinal period. Embryo increases in size by 2 million %
Fetal period Begins in 3rd mth. Measurable electrical activity in the fetus' brain.
1-Sensorimotor Stage Primary & 2nd circular reactions; object permanence develops
2-Preoperational Stage Child has not mastered conservation. Marked by object permanence, centration-only focusing on one aspect of an idea (egocentrism)
3- Concrete Operational Child masters conservation; no abstract thought. Ages 7-11. Can take the perspective of others into account, limited to working with concrete objects or info that is directly available.
Formal Operational Person has the ability to "think like a scientist" think logically about abstract ideas.
Phonology actual sound stem of language. Categorical Perception-ability to distinguish btw different sounds that do(not) change the word's meanings
Semantics word meanings.
Syntax How words are put together into sentences
Pragmatics Actual efficient use of a language. Often the same sentence will have two or more very different meanings depending on how it is spoken. Child must recognize inflections and use them as well.
Errors of Growth-Overregulation Suggests lang acquisition ins not the result of imitation and reinforcement, but the active application of a dynamic internalized set of linguistic rules.
Ainsworth, Mary Devised the strange situation to study attachment. Type A-insecure/avoidant attachment, Type B- Secure attachment, Type C- Insecure/resistant attachment
Baumrind, Diane Studied relationship btw parenting style and aggression. Authoritarian, Authoritative, and permissive
Bowlby, John Studied attachment in human children 1-pre-attachment phase, 2-Attchment is reached when infant can discriminate btw faces 6 mths prefers mom, 9-12 mths stranger anxiety, 24 mths separation anxiety 3 yrs, can leave mom
Chomsky, Norm Linguist who suggested that children have an innate capacity for language Acquisition LAD. transformation grammar-rules that govern the ways in which changes in word order change meaning.
Erickson, Erik Outlines 8 stages of psychosocial development: 1 Trust vs. mistrust 2 autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3 initiative vs. guilt 4 industry vs. inferiority 5- ID vs. role confusion 6- intimacy vs. isolation 7- generativity vs. stagnation 8- integrity vs. despair
Gessel, A Believed that development was due primarily to maturation
Gilligan C Suggested that males and females have different orientations towards morality. Criticism of Kohlberg b/c genders are raised differently
Hall G. Founder of Developmental Psyc
Harlow, H Used monkeys and surrogate mothers to study the role of contact comfort in bond formation
Kohlberg L Studied moral development using moral dilemmas.
Kohlberg's Phase One Preconventional morality Stage (instrumental relativist stage) 1-punishment and obedience 2- Orientation towards reciprocity- I'll scratch your back, you scratch mine.
Kohlberg's Phase Two Conventional phase of morality. 3- Good girl/nice boy- looks for approval from others 4- Law and order orientation-morality in terms of authority
Kohlberg's Phase Three Post-Conventional Morality- 5- Social contract orientation- moral rules are seen as convention that is designed to ensure the greater good. 6- Universal ethical principles- What's actually best
Lorenz, Konrad Studies imprinting in birds-ducks followed him around
Rousseau, J. French Philo, suggested that development could unfold w/o help of society
Terman, L. Performed Longitudinal study on gifted children
Tryon, R Studied genetic basis of maze-running ability in rats-bread maze-dull/maze-bright rats
Vygotsky, L Studied cognitive development; stressed the importance of the zone of proximal development
Created by: greggk2013