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TLHS Phy Sci Unit 9

All About Waves

TermDefinition
wave repeating disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space
medium matter through which a wave travels
mechanical wave waves that can only travel through matter
transverse wave particles in the medium move at right angles (perpendicular) to the direction the wave travels
longitudinal wave particles in the medium move the same direction (paralel) to the direction the wave travels
crest high point of a transverse wave
trough low point of a transverse wave
compression dense region on a longitudinal wave
rarefaction less dense region on a longitudinal wave
wavelength distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point just like it
frequency number of waves that pass a fixed point each second
period amount of time it takes one wavelength to pass a point
amplitude measure of the size of the disturbance of the wave
reflection wave strikes and object and bounces off it
refraction bending of a wave caused by a change in speed when moving from one medium to another
diffraction bending of a wave around an object
interference process of two or more waves overlapping and combining to form a new wave
constructive interference two waves combine to form a new wave larger than the originals
destructive interference two waves combine to form a new wave smaller than the originals
standing wave waves of equal length and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere with each other
nodes locations where interfering waves always cancel
resonance object is made to vibrate by absorbing energy at its natural frequencies
sound longitudinal waves that need to travel through a medium
intensity amount of energy that passes through a certain area in a specific amount of time
loudness perception of sound volume depends on sound intensity
decibel unit of sound
dB decibel
pitch how high or low a sound seems to be, primarily related to the frequency of the wave
Doppler effect change in wave frequency due to a wave source moving past an observer
electromagnetic waves wave made of vibrating electric charges that do not need a medium
photon mass-less bundle of energy that behaves like a particle
electromagnetic spectrum arrangement of electromagnetic waves based on the frequency of the wave
radio waves long electromagnetic wave with low frequency, longest wave
microwaves electromagnetic waves with wavelengths between 0.1 mm and 30 cm, 2nd longest wave
infrared waves electromagnetic wave that transfers thermal energy, 3rd longest wave
visible light range of electromagnetic waves that can be detected by the human eye, mid-length wave
ultraviolet wave electromagnetic wave that can enter cells, 3rd shortest wave
x - rays electromagnetic wave that can enter soft tissue, but not dense tissue like bone, 2nd shortest wave
gamma rays electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies
opaque material only absorbs and reflects light, no light passes through, not see through
translucent transmit light but also scatter it, objects on the other side looks blurry
transparent transmit light without scattering it, can see clearly the object on the other side
reflection wave bounces off the surface of material
refraction speed of wave changes as it passes through different mediums, and the wave bends
mirage refraction of light through air layers of different densities
color depends on the wavelength reflected by an object
filter transparent material that selectively transmits light
pigment colored material used to change the color of a substance