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TLHS Phy Sci Unit 7

Work and Energy

TermDefinition
work force applied through a distance
machine device that changes the force or increases the motion from work
simple machine machine that does work with only one movement of the machine
compound machine combination of two or more simple machines
efficiency ratio of output work to input work
energy ability to cause change
system anything around which you can imagine a boundary
kinetic energy energy due to motion
potential energy energy stored due to interactions between objects
elastic potential energy energy stored by compressing or stretching an object
chemical potential energy energy due to chemical bonds
gravitational potential energy energy due to the gravitational force between object
law of conservation of energy energy cannot be created or destroyed
mechanical energy sum of kinetic and potential energy
power rate at which energy is converted
Temperature measure of the average kinetic energy in an object
thermal energy sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of all the particles in an object
hot object has more kinetic energy than potential and the particles are moving quickly
cold object has more potential energy than kinetic and the particles are moving slowly
heat energy that is transferred between objects
feels hot energy is being transferred TO you from an object
feels cold energy is being transferred FROM you to an object
specific heat amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of material 1 degree C
conduction transfer of thermal energy by collisions between particles, objects must touch
convection transfer of thermal energy in a fluid (liquid or gas), objects only have to touch the fluid not each other
radiation transfer of thermal energy by electromagnetic waves like light and microwaves