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TLHS Phy Sci Unit 6

Motion, Forces, and Newton's Laws

motion change in an objects position relative to a reference point
reference point a still object used to determine if an object is in motion
displacement distance and direction of an object's change in position
speed distance an object travels over a period of time
average speed total distance traveled divided by all the time taken - including stops
instantaneous speed speed at one instant in time
Velocity speed and direction an object travels
momentum product of mass and velocity
acceleration rate of change of velocity
centripetal acceleration acceleration toward the center of a curve or circle
Force push or a pull
friction force that opposes the sliding of two surfaces
static friction type of friction that balances the applied force = no movement
sliding friction opposes the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other - stops the object quickly when the applied force is gone
rolling friction acts over the area where a wheel & surface area are in contact - special case of static friction
fluid friction friction experienced by objects in a fluid (liquid or gas)
gravity attractive force between any two objects, strength depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them
field region of space that has a physical quantity - like force - at every point
weight force of gravity on an object, measured in Newtons
Newton's First Law objects move at a constant velocity, unless acted on by an unbalanced force
Newton's Second Law object's acceleration is in the same direction as the net force on the object
Newton's Third Law when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first object
inertia tendency to resist change in motion
acceleration net force divided by mass
air resistance opposes motion of objects through the air - fluid friction
terminal velocity maximum speed an object will reach with falling
free fall when gravity is the only force acting on an object
centripetal force force exerted toward the center of a curve or circle
law of conservation of momentum if no external force acts on a group of objects, momentum does not change