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TLHS Phy Sci Unit 4

Chemical Bonds & Chemical Reactions

balanced chemical equation same number of each element on each side of the equation
chemical equation way to describe a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and other symbols
chemical reaction change in which one or more substances are converted into new substances
coefficient number in front of a chemical formula that represents how many of that compound is involved in the reaction
products the substance(s) at the end of a reaction
reactants the substance(s) at the beginning of a reaction
combustion reaction substance reacts with oxygen to produce energy in the form of heat and light
decomposition reaction one substance breaks down into two or more new substances
double-displacement reaction two positive ions - in different compounds - switch places to form two new compounds
precipitate an insoluble compound that comes out of a solution, a solid that forms from the reaction between two liquids
single-displacement reaction one element replaces another element in a compound, also called single replacement
synthesis reaction two or more substances combine to form one new substance
endothermic reaction chemical reaction that absorbs thermal energy (feels cold)
exothermic reaction chemical reaction that releases energy as thermal energy (feels hot)
catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction without being added to the reactions
collision model atoms, ions, and molecules must collide in order to react
equilibrium forward and reverse reactions are happening at equal rates
inhibitor slow down reaction rates or prevent a reaction from happening
reaction rate rate that reactants turn into produts
reversible reaction a reaction that can occur in both directions
chemical bond force that holds atoms together in a compound
chemical formula shows the exact number of element that form a specific compound
covalent bond type of bond made when atoms share electrons
ion a charged atom that has lost or gained electrons
ionic bond bond made between oppositely charged ions, the resulting compound is neutral
molecule formed when atoms share electrons
nonpolar bond bond between atoms that are equally sharing electrons
nonpolar molecule molecule (that shares electrons) with no charge
polar bond bond between atoms that are NOT equally sharing electrons
polar molecule molecule (that shares electrons) with a charge
diatomic molecule molecule made of two atoms of the same element
binary compound compound formed by only two elements
oxidation number indicates number of electrons gained or lost or shared by an element
polyatomic ions ions formed by the covalent bonding of elements
compound made of two or more elements bonded together to form a substance with properties different from those elements
electron dot diagram chemical symbol of an element surrounded by dots that represent the number of valence electrons available for bonding
cation positive ion (usually metals) that has lost electrons
anion negative ion (usually nonmetals) that has gained electrons