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TLHS Phy Sci Unit 2

Solids, Liquids, and Gases & Properties of Matter

boiling point temperature at which liquids turn into gasses, AND gasses turn into liquids (water = 100 C)
heat of fusion energy required to change a substance from a solid to a liquid
heat of vaporization amount of energy required to turn a liquid to a gas
kinetic theory explanation of how particles behave "The more kinetic energy, the faster the particles will move."
melting point temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid, AND liquids become solids (water = 0 C)
plasma matter that has overcome the attractive forces between particle and within the atom
thermal expansion increase (decrease) in size, due to the temperature
buoyancy ability of a fluid to exert and upward force
pressure force (push or pull) exerted on an object, calculated by dividing force and area
viscosity resistance of a fluid to flowing. High viscosity fluids move slowly (honey = high viscosity, water = low viscosity)
Boyle's Law As the size of a container of gas decreases, the pressure inside the container increases. Temperature must be constant.
Charles's Law As temperature increases, the volume of a gas will increase. Pressure must remain constant.
melting turning from a solid to a liquid
freezing turning from a liquid to a solid
vaporization turning from a liquid to a gas, includes boiling and evaporation
condensation turning from a gas to a liquid
boiling turns liquids to gasses, energy is being applied to the entire container of liquid (boiling water on the stove)
evaporation turns liquids to gasses, energy is being applied only to the surface of the liquid (puddle of water on warm day)
sublimation turning a solid directly into a gas
temperature measure of the average kinetic energy in an object
amorphous solid solid without a specific melting point
fluid matter that can flow, liquids and gasses
Pascal's principle pressure into a system is equal to the pressure put out by the system
Bernoulli's Principle as velocity of a fluid increases, pressure exerted by the fluid decreases
substance type of matter with a fixed composition
element substance made of atoms that are all alike (gold=Au, silver=Ag, oxygen=O)
compound substance made of two or more atoms that are chemically combined (table salt=NaCl, water H2O)
mixture matter made of substances that can be separated by physical means (air, tap water, salad, Italian dressing, soda, pizza, coffee, bread, milk, fog, smoke, mud)
heterogeneous mixture mixture in which all the parts can be seen and removed (salad, pizza, fizzy soda, Italian dressing, bread with lots of seeds)
suspension heterogeneous mixture made of liquid and solid particles that settle (Italian dressing, mud)
colloid heterogeneous mixture with particles that scatter light and never settle (milk, fog, smoke)
Tyndall effect the scattering of light by a colloid
homogeneous mixture mixture that says mixed together (no settling) and the parts can not be removed easily (flat soda, pizza dough, coffee, white bread)
solution same as a homogeneous mixture - usually a liquid or gas mixture (air, tap water)
physical property a measurable or observable characteristic that can be seen without changing the substance (mass, volume, color, texture)
physical change a change in measurable or observable characteristic that leaves the identity of the substance unchanged (tearing paper, painting a wall)
distillation separating substances by vaporizing a liquid and condensing the vapor in another container
chemical change change of one substance into one or two new substances (burning, baking soda + vinegar)
law of conservation of mass mass is neither created nor destroyed (mass before a chemical change = mass after a chemical change)