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Module 1

Absorption The process by which a drug is taken into the body and moves from the site of administration into the blood.
Adverse effect Undesired, potentially harmful side effects of drugs.
Agonist Drugs that bind to or have an affinity (attraction) for a receptor and cause a particular response.
Antagonist Drugs that bind to a receptor and prevent a response.
Bioavailability The degree to which the drug molecule reaches the site of action to exert its effects.
Biotechnology Refers to the concepts of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology.
Biotransformation AKA metabolism. The goal of biotransformation is to change lipid-soluble drug molecules into water-soluble molecules that can be more easily excreted.
Bolus A concentrated mass of pharmaceutical preparation
Contraindication Any special symptom or circumstance that renders the use of a remedy or the carrying out of a procedure inadvisable, usually because of risk.
Distribution The location of medications in various organs and tissues after administration.
Duration The time between onset and disappearance of drug effects.
Emulsion Medication is contained in a mixture of water and oil bound together with an emulsifier.
Enteral Medication is taken into the gastrointestinal tract, primarily by mouth (orally).
Excretion The act or process of discharging waste matter from the blood, tissues, or organs.
Hypersensitivity Abnormal sensitivity, a condition in which there is an exaggerated response by the body to the stimulus of a foreign agent.
Idiosyncratic effect Rare and unpredictable adverse reactions to drugs.
Indication The reason or purpose for giving a medication.
Local effect An agent that works at the site of the application.
Onset The time between administration of a drug and the first appearance of effects.
Parenteral Any administration route other than the digestive tract, the most common of which are subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous.
Pharmacodynamics The study of how drugs exert their effects on the body, at both the molecular and physiological levels.
Pharmacokinetics The study of what the body does to drugs (how the body processes drugs).
Plasma protein binding Drug molecules that bind to proteins (albumins and globulins) contained in plasma—the liquid portion of blood.
Reconstituted When a powder form of drug needs to be mixed with a liquid so that it can be administered via injection.
Side effect A predictable but unintended effect of a drug.
Solubility A drugs ability to be dissolved.
Solution A mixture of drug particles (called the solute) fully dissolved in a liquid medium (called the solvent such as water or saline).
Suspension A form in which solid undissolved particles float (are suspended) in a liquid.
Synergist A drug that enhances the effect of another drug.
Systemic effect The effect of a topical medication has on the entire body.
Topical Medication that is applied to the skin or mucous membrane lined cavity.
Controlled substances Classification of medications that have the potential for abuse.
Narcotics Any drug that cause stupor. The term is used also of sedatives and hypnotics, particularly the opiates.
DEA The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) of the Department of Justice.
FDA The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that consists of centers and offices.
The Joint Commission The Joint Commission (formerly known as The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, or JCAHO) evaluates and accredits approximately 16,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States.
OTC Over the counter drugs.
PDR The Physicians Desk Reference.
USP-NF The United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary.
Created by: Shiyan