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Module 1 Key Terms

Key Terms and Definitions

TermDefinition
Absorption The process which a drug is taken into the body, moving from site of administration into the blood.
Adverse Effect The undesired, potentially harmful side effects of drugs. Example: N&V, drug toxicity, hypersensitivity, or idiosyncratic reactions.
Agonist Drugs that bind to or have an attraction for a receptor and cause a particular response.
Antagonist Drugs that bind to a receptor and prevent a response ; also called receptor blockers.
Bioavailability Degree to which a drug molecule reaches site of action to exert its effects.
Biotechnology Concepts of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology; Use of living organisms or biological processes in technical industrial applications.
Biotransformation Chemical composition of a drug changed by a process called metabolism; The chemical alteration that a substance undergoes in the body
Bolus Concentrated mass of diagnostic substance given rapidly intravenously, like opaque contrast medium or IV medications; Drugs given all as once
Contraindication Reasons against giving a particular drug; Any symptom or circumstance that makes treatment with a drug or device unsafe or inappropriate.
Distribution Drug molecules that diffuse out of the blood stream to the site of action;
Duration The time between onset and disappearance of drug effects.
Emulsion Liquid medication form in which the medication is contained in a mixture of water and oil, bound together with an emulsifier; mixture of 2 liquids not mutually soluble, if not shaken divides globules into discontinuous or dispersed phases.
Enteral Medication administration route in which medication is taken into the gastrointestinal tract, primarily by mouth/orally.
Excretion When medications taken into the body get eliminated; The elimination of waste products from the body.
Hypersensitivity An adverse effect resulting fro previous exposure to the drug or a similar drug.
Idiosyncratic Effect Rare and unpredictable adverse reaction to drugs.
Indication Reason or purpose for giving a medication; an approved use for a drug.
Local Effect An effect occurring at site of application of topical or therapeutic agents.
Onset The time between administration of drug and the first appearance of effects.
Parenteral Any medication administration route other than digestive tract; most common are subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous.
Pharmacodynamics Study of what drugs do to the body ( how drugs affect the body); Study of drugs and their actions on living organisms.
Pharmacokinetics Study of what the body does to drugs ( how the body processes drugs); The study of the metabolism and action of drugs with particular emphasis on the 4 basic physiologic processes: absorption, distribution, biotransformation, & excretion.
Plasma Protein Binding When drug molecules bind to the proteins albumins or globulins contained in plasma (liquid portion of blood).
Reconstituted Mixing of powder medications with a liquid to form a solution that can be administered by injection;The process of adding a diluent to a powdered medication to prepare a solution or suspension.
Side Effect Predictable but unintended effect of a drug (example is drowsiness, nausea, headache, or insomnia); An action or effect of a drug other than that desired.
Solubility Ability of a drug to be dissolved
Solution Mixture of drug particles fully dissolved in a liquid medium; a liquid containing a dissolved substance or drug particles.
Suspension A form in which solid undissolved particles float in a liquid; State of a solid when its particles are mixed with, but not yet dissolved in, a fluid or another solid or substance.
Synergist A drug that enhances the effect of another drug;
Systemic Effect An effect occurring throughout the entire body from topical or therapeutic agents.
Topical Medications that are applied to the skin surface or a mucous membrane lined cavity.
Controlled Substances Drugs that are regulated by state and federal laws and may be declared illegal for sale or use, but may b dispensed under a physician's prescription.
Narcotics Drugs that depress the central nervous system, relieving pain and producing sleep. Examples: Opium, Morphine, codeine, Papaverine, and Heroin.
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration of Department of Justice, established to enforce Controlled Substances Act; Sets standards for handling controlled substances and has legal authority to enforce those standards.
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration- They developed classification system related to medications' effects on unborn children and are the official regulatory for foods, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices.
The Joint Commission Once known as Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations/ JACHO- evaluates and accredits health care facilities and sets policies such as National Patient Safety Goals.
OTC Over-the-Counter drugs- Medications that do not require a prescription.
PDR Physician's Desk Reference- An annual compendium of information concerning drugs, primarily prescription and diagnostic products.
USP-NF United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary- Official medication list recognized by the U.S government. It lists standards for medication quality, safety , and effectiveness, also physical and chemical characteristics of listed medications.
Created by: A_Gabriel24