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NM vocabulary

Neuromuscular selective terminology

agnosia inability to recognize familiar objects with one form of sensation (e.g., visual agnosia)
akinesia inability to initiate movement
aphasia disturbance to language that results in errors in word choice, comprehension, or syntax
expressive (broca's) aphasia severe difficulty in verbal expression with impairment in object naming and writing abilities. Mostly found in those with R hemiplegia.
global aphasia most common and severe form of aphasia. Reduced speech and comprehension. Reading and writing are impaired as well.
receptive (wernicke's) aphasia severe disturbance in auditory comprehension. Reading, writing, and word recognition are also impaired.
apraxia inability to perform movement previously learned even though there is no loss of strength, coordination, sensation, or comprehension
Ideational apraxia person no longer gets the "idea" of how to do a routine task; eg., washing hands or brushing teetch
ideomotor apraxia person cannot do a task on command but can do it spontaneously
astereognosis inability to recognize objects by touch alone
asynergia inability to move muscles together in a coordinationed manner
ataxia uncoordinated movement, especially gait
athetosis slow, involuntary, worm-like, twisting movements. usually seen in forms of cerebral palsy
causalgia burning sensation, which are painful. often associated wtih CRPS type 2
cheyne-stroke respiration common and bizzare breathing pattern characterized by a period of apnea lasting 10-60 sec followed by gradually increasing, then decreasing depth and frequency of respirations.
chorea rapid, involuntary, jerky movements. seen especially in Huntington's chorea
clonus a rhythmic oscillation of a muscle in response to sustained stretch in patients with UMN lesion
decerebrate rigidity contraction of extensor muscle of UE and LE because of an injury at the level of the brain stem
decorticate rigidity contraction of flexory muscles of UE with contraction of extensor muscles of LE
delirium temporary confusion and loss of mental function. often as a result of illness, drug toxicity, or lack of O2. often reversible.
dementia loss of memor or intellectual functioning.
dysmetria inability to judge distances. seen especially in cerebrallar dysfunction
electromyography (EMG) the study of a graphic record of the contraction of a muscle as a result of electrical stimulation. used to evaluate voluntary electrical activity of muscle.
glove and stocking anesthesia occurs in generalized peripheral neuropathies in which the distal portion of the nerves degenerate resulting in anesthesia of the distal extremities in a pattern as if the pt was wearing long gloves and stockings. occasionally seen in GBS
herpes zoster (shingles) painful inflammatoin of posterior root ganglion, caused by virus, resulting in formation of vesicles along the course of dermatomal nerve
Horner's syndrome ptosis of the eyelid, constriction of pupil, lack of sweating of ipsilateral face, often accompanying stroke involving anterior inferior or posterior inferior cerebellar arteries
morton's neuroma excessive pronation during stance produces compression between 3rd and 4th metatarsals.
nerve conducting velocity (NCV) test determines speed of propagation of an action potential along a nerve or muscle fiber. If nerve is compressed/damaged, velocity will be slow and latency (time it takes to travel between 2 points) increased.
nystagmus rapid, usually back and forth, movement of the eyeballs
reciprocal inhibition inhibition of muscles antagonistic to those being facilitated. essential for coordinated movements
romberg's sign loss of balance in standing when eyes are closed
somatagnosia lack of awareness of the relationship of one's own body parts or the body parts of others
vegetative state deep coma with abnormal posturing.
visual acuity sharpness of vision that generally decreases with age or certain disabilities such as diabetes
homonymous hemianopsia deficit of either bilateral R or L halves of the visual field, caused by damage to contralateral optic tract. e.g., bilateral L visual field deficit due to R optic tract damange.
bitemporal hemianopsia deficit of bilateral temporal or peripheral visual field, caused by injury at the optic chiasm. (tunnel vision)
monocular blindness blindness in one eye as a result of damage to optic nerve
Created by: mjresendez