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Key Terms

Absorption The process by which a drug is taken into the body and moves from the site of administration into the blood.
Adverse effect Undesired, potentially harmful side effects of drugs.
Agonist Drugs that bind to or have an affinity (attraction) for a receptor and cause a particular response.
Antagonist Drugs that bind to a receptor and prevent a response are called?
Bioavailability Indicates the degree to which the drug molecule reaches the site of action to exert its effects.
Biotechnology Refers to the concepts of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology.
Biotransformation To change lipid-soluble drug molecules into water-soluble molecules that can be more easily excreted.
Bolus Drugs given all at once.
Contraindication Reasons against giving a particular drug are called?
Distribution Drug molecules eventually diffuse out of the bloodstream to the site of action in the process called?
Duration The time between onset and disappearance of drug effects is called?
Emulsion Medication is contained in a mixture of water and oil bound together with an emulsifier.
Enteral Indicates that the medication is taken into the gastrointestinal tract, primarily by mouth.
Excretion Medications taken into the body are eliminated in the process called?
Hypersensitivity An adverse effect resulting from previous exposure to the drug or a similar drug.
Idiosyncratic effect Drug effects are rare and unpredictable adverse reactions to drugs.
Indication The reason or purpose for giving a medication is called the?
Local effect Topical agent that works at the site of application.
Onset The time between administration of a drug and the first appearance of effects is called?
Parenteral Indicates that the medication is taken any route other than the digestive tract, the most common of which are subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous.
Pharmacodynamics The study of what drugs do to the body (how drugs affect the body).
Pharmacokinetics The study of what the body does to drugs (how the body processes drugs).
Plasma protein binding Drug molecules bind to proteins (albumins and globulins) contained in plasma—the liquid portion of blood—via a process known as?
Reconstituted Powders must be mixed with a liquid to form a solution that can be administered by injection.
Side effect Is a predictable but unintended effect of a drug.
Solubility Drugs ability to be dissolved and also affects the absorption rate.
Solution A mixture of drug particles fully dissolved in a liquid medium.
Suspension A form in which solid undissolved particles float in a liquid.
Synergist A drug that enhances the effect of another drug is called a?
Systemic effect Topical medication that works throughout the entire body.
Topical Indicates that the medication is applied to the skin surface or a mucous membrane–lined cavity.
Controlled substances Drugs capable of being abused.
Narcotics Are also called opioid pain relievers and are controlled substances.
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration
FDA Food and Drug Administration
The Joint Commission Accredits hospitals and other health care institutions.
OTC Nonprescription or over-the-counter drugs
PDR Provides easy access to information on several thousand medications used in medical and surgical practice.
USP-NF Assigns an official name to a new medication; this is usually the generic name.



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