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Personality Ch. 8

Trait Theory (Allport) Ryckman 10e

becoming Developmental process involving movement toward self-realization.
bodily self Feelings about oneself based on feedback from one's physical senses.
central traits Characteristics that control an individual's behavior in many situations but are less comprehensive than cardinal traits.
common traits Dispositions shared with others.
extrinsic religious orientations According to Allport orientations that are used by people for self-serving purposes. The primary orientation is a narcissistic focus on having their needs met.
functional automnomy Process whereby a behavior that was once controlled by a basic motive comes to operate independently of that motive.
genotype Inherited characteristic that may or may not be reflected in the phenotype, or outward appearance, of the individual.
humanistic theory A theory that emphasizes the dignity and worth of the person. It optimistically assumes that creativity of the individual and movement toward psychological health.
idiographic Scientific approach to the study of behavior that seeks to understand the uniqueness of a specific individual through intensive investigation.
intrinsic religious orientations According to Allport, orientations that are adopted by people to help them make sense of their experiences and to surrender themselves to a power higher than themselves. They are oriented toward helping others and are not narcissistic.
nomothetic Scientific approach to the study of behavior that seeks to establish laws by specifying the general relationships between variables.
personal dispositions Traits unique to the individual.
phenotype Outward appearance of a particular characteristic that may or may not reflect the underlying inherited genotype.
propriate striving Motive that propels the individual toward the attainment of important, long-range goals. These drives involve an increase, rather than a decrease, in tension.
properium Term used by Allport to signify all the various aspects of the person that make him or her unique; the self.
psychophysical systems Components of personality, as defined by Allport, on the basis of his belief that psychological concepts represent actual underlying states in the nervous system.
secondary traits Peripheral characteristics, such as preferences, that exert little control over a person's behavior.
self acceptance Acknowledgement and understand of one's own limitations, along with recognition of one's strengths.
self-as-rational-coper Awareness of oneself as someone capable of rationally formulating and utilizing strategies in order to solve problems and attain personal goals.
self-esteem Feelings about one's worth.
self-extension Sense of identity with one's possessions, family, home & country: Immature =egocentricity, view of other objects, ie family in terms of contributions to own welfare. Mature=need to contribute to well-being of others that are central to one's existence.
self-identity The feeling that one is an established human being with a unique past that guides one's present and future judgments.
self-image Role played in order to win the approval of others; also , plans and behavioral strategies for the future that help people attain their goals.
self-as-knower The different aspects of the proprium are unified by the final aspect of the proprium, the self-as-knower. The self-as-knower is the integrative totality of the person in the process of growth; an entity that is becoming or moving toward self-realization.
Aspects of the proprium (self) The bodily self, self-identity, self-esteem ,self-extension, self-image, self-as-rational-coper, and propriate strivings.
self-objectification Ability to perceive accurately one's own abilities and limitations.
social desirability biases Habitual ways of responding to personality tests that respondents use to win the approval of others by endorsing statements that are socially desirable (ie i am always courteous to others; I never lie; I am never prejudiced against others)
trait theory Conception of personality that postulates the existence of underlying dispositions or characteristics that direct behavior.
Created by: DavisWSU