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Chapter 4

body structure that is the source for the *mind & self* brain
the first person that *systemically* looked at the mind and body connection relationship Rene Descartes
mind-body "dualism" 18th century notions that the mind or soul is spiritual and non-material, and the body is physical and mechanical
unidirectional/single direction philosophy belief the mind and body is either influenced by the mind or influenced by the body
interactional/reciprocal philosophy belief that the mind and body influence each other
epiphenomenal/byproduct philosophy belief that the mind and body function independently
two body structures of the CNS brain and spinal cord
the brain and spinal cord float in this type of fluid cerebrospinal
main function of cerebrospinal fluid protection
spinal cord is protected by spinal column
a body structure that runs from the base of the brain, down the center of the back, and a collection of nerves and supportive tissue spinal cord
"simple" and "withdraw" reflexes purposes protective function
"simple reflex" a quick action of reflex by a sensory neuron
"withdraw reflex" an action by a motor neuron
The more ____________ required to process information, the longer a response or action is needed in processing information. neurons
a sensory neuron signal -> interneuron-> motor neuron response sequence that causes you to remove your hand when touching a burning candle flame withdraw reflex
two categories of the nervous system the CNS and the PNS
CNS Central Nervous System
PNS Peripheral Nervous System
2 subcategories of the PNS Somatic and Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System regulates skeletal muscle system
Autonomic Nervous System regulates glands, blood vessels, internal organs
"Bridges" the brain and PNS the spinal cord
2 subcategories of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic (SNS) and Parasympathetic Nervous System (PSNS)
SNS function mobilizes actions and energy output
PSNS function conserves energy and maintains a quiet state
neuron nerve cell found throughout the body and brain that send and receive messages
neuron characteristics dendrites, cell body or soma, axon, myelin sheath, and terminal buttons
dendrites tree-like branches that receive impulses from other neurons and transmit impulses toward the cell body
cell body or soma structure of the nerve cell that keeps it alive and determines whether a nerve impulse is being generated
axon fibrous neuronal tube-like structure that extends from the cell body, conducts impulses away from the cell body, and transmits impulses into other cells
myelin sheath the fatty substance that surrounds some axons and speeds up the rate of neuron impulse transmission
axon's terminal button releases neurotransmitters, the neurotransmitters then enter the synaptic cleft, and finally the neurotransmitter binds to a receptor site that it fits neuronal communication
space between neurons synapse
chemicals that transmit information to and from neurons neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters, hormones, and endorphins nervous system chemicals
major neurotransmitters in the nervous system acetylcholine, dopamine, and serotonin
most widely distributed and first known neurotransmitter acetylcholine
A person diagnosed with Parkinson's disease is shown to have less of this neurotransmitter dopamine
neurotransmitter found in the 60's and regulates sleep and dreaming serotonin
body system that secretes hormones into the blood stream Endocrine System
chemical messengers of the Endocrine System that regulate growth, metabolism, sexual development, and behavior hormones
adrenaline epinephrine
the hormone "Master Gland" pituitary gland
opiate-like chemicals present in the nervous system that reduce pain, increase pleasure, and act as "neuromodulators" endorphins
*main function* of an endorphin to act as a neuromodulator
meaning of a neuromodulator to "even out" the action of neurotransmitters
discipline of psychology coined by Donald Hebb that studies the relationship between brain function and behavior neuropsychology
brain theories that are the source of control of behavior brain and neuron hypotheses
secretions removed from the body
excretions going into the body
Greek/Latin meaning of endorphins into the head
hypothesized the source of behavioral control concerning the brain or brain hypothesis in 500 B.C. Alcmaeon
hypothesized that cardiac or the heart was the source of behavioral control in 400 B.C. Empedocles
two early physicians that placed control of behavior in the head Hippocrates & Galen
believed the mind was located in the non-bilateral structure of the brain of the pineal gland DesCartes
theorized that the mind *does not exist* and the mind is *just a term* describing the brain and brain activities Gilbert Ryle
"Ghost in the Machine" and the homunculus reference perception and apperception
"cell assemblies" or cerebral localization the grouping and organizing of brain cells, or classifying parts of the brain that identify with things like communication and sounds
theorized "cell assemblies" or cerebral localization Donald Hebb
neurosurgeon that stimulated parts of the brain during neurosurgery and mapped the brain with his procedures Wilder Penfield
theorized that all body functions require the entire brain in the 1920s and used the lesioning or ablation method of brain mapping in animals Karl Lashley
lesioning incision or making a wound
ablation removing parts of
EEG electroencephalogram
EEG brain mapping records neural activity or "brain waves" with electrodes
EEGs diagnose seizures/epilespy
procedure that delivers an electrical current through a wire coil on a person's head, causes neurons to fire that produces motor responses, treats depression, and is a useful non-damaging brain mapping technique Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
a useful method in brain mapping for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain and uses an injection of a glucose-like substance that contains a radioactive element and is also used to diagnose cancer. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
advantages of the PET in brain mapping sensors detect radioactivity, active areas of the brain have more blood flow, and different tasks show distinct brain activity patterns
two types of brain mapping methods that use magnetic fields useful in studying body/brain issues by aligning certain ion/compounds, and uses computers to calculate tissue density to radio waves that provide a 3D image MRI and fMRI
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
fMRI function Magnetic Resonance Imaging
magnetic field procedure that determines where brain activity occurs fMRI
when the MRI or fMRI field is removed what happens to the molecules the release of energy becomes a form of radio waves
brain mapping procedure that communicates the flow or direction of information in the brain by color High Definition Fiber Tracking or HDFT
color references in HDFT refer to the direction of the neural connections
HDFT color *green* anterior-posterior or front-back
HDFT color *red* left-right of brain communication
HDFT color *blue* the brain stem
term used for the structure and functions of the brain neuroanatomy
structures present in the brain stem pons, medulla, and Reticular Activating System (RAS)
general functions of the pons sleeping, waking, and dreaming or general level of arousal
general functions of the medulla certain automatic functions such as breathing and heart rate
general functions of the Reticular Activating System (RAS) arouses cortex, screens incoming information, and is involved in activating/deactivating brain functions
general functions of the Cerebellum regulates movement/balance and involved in remembering motor skills
general functions of the Thalamus regulates all sensory messages except the olfactory bulb (smell) to the cerebral cortex and a.k.a "central clearing house" for all sensations
Limbic System hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus
hypothalamus regulates the autonomic nervous system and involved in emotions and vital survival drives
"Four F's" of hypothalamus fear, fight or flight, feeding (hunger and thirst), and reproduction (*ucking)
amygdala initial emotional response to sensory information, mediating anxiety and depression, and *emotional memory*
hippocampus the "storage space" of new information in memory and compares sensory information with that the brain expects about the world
hippocampus limit emptying time during sleep while other memories are stored in other parts of the brain
the largest brain structure surrounded by the cerebral cortex that is divided into two halves and in charge of the most "higher order" of sensory, motor, and cognitive processes cerebrum
upper brain cerebral divisions right and left hemispheres
connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain allowing communication between the two hemispheres and contains millions of nerve fibers and myelinated axons corpus callosum
cerebral cortex a collection of several thin layers of cells that surrounds the cerebrum
four lobes of the cerebral cortex occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal
Occipital Lobes vision and considered the visual cortex
Parietal Lobes integration of sensory information and considered the Somatosensory cortex
Temporal Lobes memory, perception, emotion, and considered the auditory cortex
left Temporal Lobe's Wernicke's area language processing or thought
Frontal Lobes emotions, planning, and creative thinking and considered the motor cortex
left Frontal Lobe Broca's area involves the vocalization or speech of language or thought
the most recently developed lobe of the brain and has "executive functioning" of planning or telling what to do in the brain frontal lobe
a railroad construction foreman and involved in the first significant modern case study of traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosion that forced a steel tamping rod through his head Phineas Gage
If the corpus callosum is surgically severed to treat epilepsy, what happens to the mirrored hemispheres of the brain? they cannot communicate directly
left side of the brain controls language
right side of the brain controls visual pictures
If the corpus callosum is split, what can the left side of the brain *not* do? vocalize pictures
If the corpus callosum is split, what side of the brain can vocalize pictures? right hemisphere
The right side of the brain controls what side of the body? left
The left side of the brain controls what side of the body? right
performed split-brain experiments and stated patients identified verbally pictures to the right (i.e. boy) and when asked to point to the face seen, patients pointed to the left picture Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga
being right-handed is "correct" cultural bias
Due to split brain research, what area of the brain do nearly all right-handed and the majority of left-handed individuals process language? left hemisphere
Many researchers of split-brain research believe that the left hemisphere of the brain is ______________ compared to the right hemisphere of the brain. dominant
Other researchers concerning research on split-brain research insist the right hemisphere is important for what important function? spatial visual problem solving, comprehending non-verbal sounds, and some language abilities
Hand dominance usually develops by this age 5 years
term used to define people who use the right and left hand as being dominant mixed laterality
was concerned with the relationship between a subjective experience and the physical process of the brain concerning the Self Gazzangia
Modern brain scientist explain the "mind" or "soul" in physical terms as a product of ? the cerebral cortex
stated the mind was a loose confederation of mental systems or "modules" working without conscious awareness Roser and Gazzangia
stated the mind was a series of independent brain parts dealing with different aspects of thoughts Dennett
Gazzangia believed the "self" is a _____________ that tries to make sense of brain activity. left hemisphere module
Modern brain scientist believe the ________________ play a critical role in the "self". frontal lobes
A ________________ of 49 studies of sex differences in the brain anatomy; small differences between the two groups, but, larger differences within groups dealing with "His" and "Her" brains. meta-analysis
differences in lateralization of language in male and females males show left hemisphere activation only, and females show left and right hemisphere activation
_________ have more gray matter. females
"brain differences" of behavior could be the result rather than the cause, cultural stereotypes, does not necessarily explain behavior or performance
"could be the result rather than the cause" the way a person is raised or taught or actual brain frequencies could be the result of brain differences
pruning a term used to explain the brain getting rid of unused information
homunculus a representation of a human being
Created by: jeremsbrower