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Spine Anatomy

Cartilage & Bone

QuestionAnswer
Is cartilage vascular or avascular? avascular
Cartilage is made up of what cells? chondrocytes
Cartialge matrix is produced and maintained by what? chondrocytes
The large ratio of GAGS to type II collagen permits what? diffusion of substances between blood vessels in the surrounding CT and chondrocytes.
What is the function of cartilage? support soft tissue, bear mechanical stress
Classification of cartilage is based on what? the type of fibers
Hyaline cartilage contains bundles of _______ collagen, ________ and _______. type II, proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid
Elastic cartilage contains _____ fibers. elastic
Fibrous cartilage contains large bundles of _______ collagen. type I
Name the four properties of cartilage. high tensile strength, low metabolic rate, capacity for continued growth, avascular
What is the precursor for cartilage? mesenchyme
Mesenchymal cells differentiate into what? chondroblasts
Chondrocytes become separated and become _______ and ________. collagen and ground substances
Rapid cell division gives rise to _______ _______. Isogenous groups (chondrocytes)
What are the functions of hyaline cartilage? (5 things) forms embryonic skeleton, precursor for bone, provides low friction surface, lubes synovial joint, distributes applied forces to underlying bone
Where is hyaline cartilage found? respiratory passages, costal cartilages, articular cartilages, thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartialges
Hyaline cartialge matrix is highly _________. hydrated
What percentage of the hyaline cartilage matrix weight is water? 60-80%
The perichondrium surrounds what (except at articular surfaces)? hyaline cartilage
How many layers does the perichondrium have and what are they? 2, outer and inner
What is the perichondrium made up of _____ _____ _____ and contains what? dense irregular CT/ nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics
The outer layer of the perichondrium has what? lots of type I collagen fibers and fibroblasts
Describe the inner layer of the perichondrium. more cellular, fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells, it gives rise to chondroblasts
Is there perichondrium on articular cartilage surface? no
How does nutrients get to the chondrocytes? diffusion from synovial fluid
What are isogenous groups? clusters of chondrocytes derived from 1 cell
What is the function of elastic cartilage? flexible support
Where is elastic cartilage located? external ear, walls of ext acoustic meatus, auditory tube, epiglottic/corniculate/ cuneiform laryngeal cartilages
Elastic cartilage is distinguished by ________ in cartilage matrix. elastin
Does elastic cartilage have perichondrium? yes
What is the function of fibrocartilage? Firm support with tensile strength, transition between dense CT and hyaline cartilage
Where can you find fibrocartilage? IV discs, pubic symphysis, discs SC and TMJ, lines tendon grooves, menisci, tendon attachment to bone
What are the two types of cartilage growth? appositional and interstitial
process that forms new cartilage at the surface of existing cartilage is what? Appositional cartialge growth
process that forms new cartilage within the cartilage mass is what? interstitial cartilage growth
What stimulates chondrocyte growth? GH, thyroxine, and testosterone
What slows chondrocyte growth? cortisone, hydrocortisone
When cartilage is damaged, this is usually produced during the repair process. dense CT (scar)
When hyaline cartilage is calcified it is normally replaced by what? bone
______ is a specialized CT characterized by a mineralized extracellular matrix. bone
Extracellular matrix is mineralized _______ in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals. calcium phosphate
Functions of bone include: *hint 5 things 1) supports body2) protects viscera3) muscle attachment4) hemopoesis5) storage for calcium and phosphate
Which is the most common type of collagen in bone? Type 1
Collagen makes up what % of the bone matrix? 90%
The bone matrix is made up of what two things primarily? 1)Type 1 collagen and 2)ground substance
What two things make up ground substance? 1)GAG and 2)glycoproteins & sialoproteins
Spaces within the bone matrix are known as? lacunae
Osteocytes extend cell processes into little tunnels known as? canaliculi
There are no isogenous groups in bone but you do see what distinctive characterstic? canaliculi
What are the different type of tissues found in a bone? * hint 6 1) bone tissue2) hemopoietic tissue3) fat tissue4) blood vessels5) nerves6) hyaline cartilage
Bone is classified as what two type of bone tissue? 1) Compact2) Spongy
Which tissue makes up 80% of bone tissue? compact (dense)
Which tissue makes up 20% of bone tissue? spongy (cancellous or trabecular)
What are four bone shapes discussed in the bone lecture? 1) long - longer in one dimension2) short - nearly equal in length & diameter3) flat - thin and plate like4) irregular
What are examples of the four bones shapes? 1) long - tibia2) short - carpal bone3) flat - sternum4) irregular - vertebra
Where is the diaphysis located? long part of the bone
Where is the epiphysis located? very end of the bone
Where is the metaphysis located? between the dia and epi
The outer surface of the bone is known as the what? periosteum
Fibers that anchor the tendon into the bone are known as what? Sharpey's fibers
_______ cells = endosteal cells Osteoprogenitor
______ cells are flattened cells resembling fibroblasts Endosteal
There are two main types of bone marrow.. these are? 1)Red bone marrow and 2) Yellow bone marrow
Red bone marrow contains ______ cells which are associated with filtering blood reticular
Yellow bone marrow can convert to ______ and examples of where to find this are in the ____ and _____ blood, sternum and iliac crest
_______ canals are perforating canals, channels in lamellar bone for blood vessels and nerves from periosteal and endosteal surfaces. Volkman's
Regarding blood supply to the bone, _____ canals provide the major route of entry of blood within compact bone. Volkman's
Regarding blood supply to the bone, bone tissue lacks what type of vessles? lymphatic
_________ cells transform into osteoblast. Osteoprogenitor
________ are bone forming cells. Osteoblast
Osteoblast are responsible for the calcification of the _____? matrix
______ is a mature bone cell? Osteocyte
_______ are the biggest of the bone cells? Osteoclast
Osteoclast are responsible for bone _______? resorption
____ stimulates osteoblast PTH
____ _____ _____ stimulates osteoclast osteoclast stimulatiing hormone
Factors influencing bone *hint 7 things 1) parathyroid hormone2) Calcitonin3) Deficiencies in calcium or bone4) Deficiencies in Vit D5) Deficiencies in Vit C6) Deficiencies in Vit A7) Radiation
Which factor elevates blood Ca levels? Parathyroid hormone
Which factor lowers blood Ca levels? Calcitonin
What happens if osteoclast exceed osteoblast? dficiencies in Ca or bone
If you had a deficiency in Vit D you might develop ____? rickets
If you have a deficiency in Vit C you might develop ____? scurvy
If you have a deficiency in Vit A you might develop ____ and ____ of your long bones? fragility, fractures
This can destroy bone cells resulting in bone degeneration? *hint involves isotopes Radiation
Created by: txst spr 2009