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pharm chapter 5

QuestionAnswer
define pharmodynamics? -its the study of what drugs do to the body and how they do it.
explain the dose-response relationship and its phases 1: occurs at low doses, the curve is flat since the doses are too low to elicit a measurable response 2: increase in dose causes increase in response, its a graded response 3: an increase in doesn't cause an increase in response
define potency -it is the amount of drug that is given to elicit an effect -potency of a drug implies nothing about its maximal efficacy -high potency; produces higher effects not necessarily need lower doses to achieve it
t/f binding of drug to its receptor is irreversible F
what are the four primary receptor families 1) cell membrane-embedded enzymes 2) ligand-gated ion channels, 3) G-protein-coupled receptors 4) transcription factors
define cell membrabe-embedded enzyme receptors -they span the cell membrane -ligand binding domain located on cell surface -enzyme catalytic site is inside -response to actuvation of these receptors happens in secs Isulin ex of endodogenous ligands that works through this receptor
what is the main function of ligand-gated ion channels and where are they located -control flow of ions into/out of cells, -each ligand gate is specific to ion -span the cell membrane -binding of endogenous ligand to receptor causes flow of ion into or out of cell -activation/response fast -nt like acetycholine and GABA use this
what are the three parts of the G protein-coupled receptor -the receptor -G protein (binds GTP) -an effector (an ion channel or an enzyme)
what is the main difference between transcription factors and other receptors? 1) TF are found w/in the cells instead of the surface 2) respose to activation of these receptors are delayed -TF found on DNA in cell nucleus & they regulate protein synthesis -the whole process may take hrs-days
T/F TF are activated by only lipid soluble ligands T -since TF are intracellular, they are only activated by lipid ligands that are able to cross the cell membrane
why is it that drugs interact with certain receptors and not all? because of the lock and key analogy -it must have the shape complementary to the receptor, it also needs to have the correct charges postions at the correct site to interact with the receptor
what are the two theories for drug receptor interaction? 1) the simple occupancy theory 2) the modified occupancy theory -they explain dose-response relationships and ability of drugs to mimic or block actions of endogenous regulatory molecules
what are the two ideas that the simple occupancy theory state?SOT 1) the intensity of the response to a drug is proportional to the # of receptors occupied by that drug 2) maximal response will occur when all available receptors have been occupied
9what are the assumptions that SOT make assumes all drugs acting at a particular receptor are identical with respect to the ability to bind to the receptor & the ability to influence receptor function once binding has taken place. The modified occupancy theory is diff
what is the modified occupancy theory looks at 1) affinity-> strength of attraction bet drug and receptor reflected in potency, need little to bind or need a lot of drug to bind 2) intrinsic->ability of drug to activate receptor after binding reflected in maximal efficacy->
Drugs that mimic body's own regulatory molecules are called ____________ Agonist--> have high intrinsic activity and affinity
Drugs that block actions of endogenous regulators are __________________-- antagonists--> have no effect of their own on receptor function, they do prevent activation of receptors by agonists
Drugs that mimic actions of endogenous regulatory molecules but produce an intermediate intensity response _____________ partial agonist--> the maximal effect that it produces is lower than a full agonist since it only has moderate intrinsic activity -can act as an agonist and antagonist ie: pentszocine
T/F response to an antagonist is determined by how much agonist is present T if there is no agonist present, administration of an antagnoist will have no observable effect and vice versa
what are the two classes for antagonists 1) competitive(most are this) and 2) noncompetitive 1) bind reversibly -2) bind irreversibly to receptors and they reduce the maximal response since there will be a decrease in receptors available for agonist
define effective dose (ED) the dose that is required to produce a defined therapeutic response in 50% of the population.
what is the therapeutic index? measure of the drugs safety ratio of drugs lethal dose (LD) to its effective dose
Created by: Jaspritk
 

 



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