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Personality Ch. 1

Pesonality and the Scientific Outlook (Ryckman 10e)

Personality (Layperson) Personality defined in terms of social attractivness
Personality (Professional) The term used by personality psychologists to describe the uniqueness of the individual. Personality involves judgments regarding who the person truly is and how she or he differs fro other people.
Aristotle's Characterology Emphasized or exaggerated the individuals style of life, habits & traits. Led to the development of literature
Hippocrates Humoral Psychology The belief that air, earth, fire & water surrounding our birth caused one of 4 humors to develop.
Hippocrates Four Humors Blood, Black Bile, Yellow Bile and Phlegm, leading to either being hopeful, sad, mischievous or apathetic
Physiognomy Personality based on your outward apperance
Phrenolgy Belief that the brain has 35 regions and the bumps on the skull show which are more developed.
Experimental method Scientific method for studying cause-and-effect relationships between variables. It involves the manipulation of independent variables and observation of the effects of the manipulation on dependent variables
Correlational method General procedure for establishing an association or relationship between events. Statistics involving correlations can vary in complexity from simple correlation coefficients to complicated factor analyses.
Case Study Research technique involving the intensive study of a single person over a long period of time in order to understand his or her unique behavior
Post hoc explanation Explanation of a phenomenon given after its occurrence. The explanation presumes that certain factors caused the phenomenon, but there is no evidence that they actually did so.
a priori predictions Predictions about the outcome of an investigation that are made before the data are collected.
Applied Value Criterion or standard for judging the scientific worth of a theory: an adequate theory is capable of providing creative solutions to problems that are of interest and concern to people.
Comprehensiveness Criterion for judging the worth of a scientific theory., more adequate and useful if they encompass and account for a wide range & variety of phenomena
Conceptual definitions The concepts in the hypotheses must be defined precisely so that accurate measures of the concepts can be devised.
Control Group The group that does not receive the experimental treatment. They provide baseline data against which the effects of the experimental manipulation on the dependent variable can be accurately judged.
Correlation coefficient A numerical index of the size and direction of a association between two variables
Cortisol An adrenal-cortex hormone that is generated by any kind of physical or psychological stress. High levels equal greater stress.
Debriefing Informing study participants of the true nature and purpose of a study after it is completed
Deductive Theories Theories in which specific hypotheses are derived from abstract propositions and then tested by the collection of data.
Empirical evidence Observations of phenomena made by investigators
Empirical validity Criterion for judging the worth of a scientific theory, The theory's hypotheses are tested by the collection of data to determine whether or not they are accurate.
Experimenta group The group who experience the intentional alteration of factors in an experiment
Heuristic value Criterion for judging the scientific worth of a theory; An adequate theory should be challenging; it should stimulate new ideas and new research.
Hypohteses Tentative theoretical statement bout how events are related to one another, often stated as predictions about how the operations of one set of events will affect the operation of others.
Independent variables The variables actively manipulated by the experimenter so that their effects on individual behavior can be observed.
Inductive theories Generalizations or summary statements about phenomena derived from a set of facts.
Informed consent The practice of telling study participants about the nature of their participation in a proposed experiment and then obtaining their written agreement to participate.
Law of effect The principle that a behavior becomes more likely when it is followed by a positive reinforcer or the removal of a negative stimulus, whereas it becomes less likely when it is followed by a punisher or the removal of a positive reinfocer
Laws systematic and highly reliable associations between variables
Longitudinal studies Studies in which data are collected on the same individuals over time so that investigators can determine the direction and extent of changes in their behavior
Multiple correlation statistical technique by which it is possible to determine the relationship between one variable and a combination of two or more other variables simultaneously
Operational definitions Procedures or operations used to define particular constructs
Parsimony Criterion for judging the scientific worth of a theory: A adequate theory should be a parsimonious, or economical, as possible, while still adequately accounting for the phenomena in its domain.
Partial correlation A correlational technique that allows an investigator to assess the relationship between two events by eliminating or partialing out, the influences of other variables
Postulates Fundamental or core assumptions of a a theory. They are taken as self-evidently true in order to provide a clear and focused direction for theorizing and research.
Precision Criterion for judging the scientific worth of a theory: An adequate theory should contain constructs and relational statements that are clearly and explicitly stated and measured.
Propositions General relational statements that may be true or false. They are not tested directly; instead, hypotheses are derived from them.
Psychological construct A highly complex abstraction that encompasses a variety of components or dimensions. For example, intelligence is a construct that encompasses reasoning ability, spatial ability, mechanical ability, mathematical ability, and so forth.
Relational statements Theoretical propositions or hypotheses that link or relate constructs. Tor example the constructs of frustration and aggression might be linked as follows: Increases in frustration lead to increases in aggressive behavior
Replication Duplication repetition of an experiment or study to determine whether or not the original findings are reliable
Self-affirmation theory A theory which postulates that each of us strives to maintain a view of ourselves as morally adequate and that we respond to any threat to our self-integrity by trying to restor or reaffirm it
Self-report A written or verbal statement given by study participants on questionnaires or in interviews concerning their personality characteristics.
Statistical significance A numerical index of the pobability that a particular result occurred by chance
Testability Criterion for judging the scientific worth of theory: An adequate theory must contain hypotheses that can be defined clearly, measured precisely, and confirmed or disconfirmed in therms of observable events
Theory a number of interrelated conceptual statement that are created by investigators to account for a phenomenon or a set of phenomena
Created by: DavisWSU