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Physical Sci Final

Review for Physical Science Final Exam

Electromagnetic Spectrum different frequencies of light energy, including Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infrared, visible light, Ultraviolet light, x-ray, and Gamma Rays.
Physical Properties properties that can be observed WITHOUT CHANGING the substance. Examples : electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting point, boiling point, density.
Chemical Properties Properties that involve CHANGE the substance into something else. Examples: the ability to rust, the ability to burn, the ability to tarnish.
Density Mass/Volume
Mass the amount of matter in an object (Does not change in space!)
Weight the pull of gravity on an object (Changes on other planets and in space!)
Volume The amount of space an object fills.
Physical Change Changes appearance of an object, but it is still the same substance. (Example: tearing paper, breaking glass, cutting hair, melting ice, boiling water)
Chemical Change Changes what a substance IS. (Examples: Burning wood to ash, metal turning to rust.)
Law of Conservation of Matter Matter can NOT be created or destroyed...but it CAN change forms.
Atom the smallest unit of an element.
Proton Positive Charge, in the nucleus of an atom.
Neutron Neutral Charge, in the nucleus of an atom.
Electron Negative Charge, in the electron cloud of an atom.
Element only one type of atom. Each Square on the periodic table. (Hydrogen, Nitrogen)
Molecule More than one atom joined together (Example: C6H12O6 - sugar)
periodic table a chart where elements are grouped according to similar properties. Elements in the same vertical column are VERY similar.
Solid Particles are tightly packed, vibrate in place. Have constant shape & volume.
Liquid Particles are more loosely packed. Have a constant volume, can change shape.
Gas Particles are very spread out and move freely. Volume and shape can change.
Pure substance only one type of substance that can NOT be easily separated.
Mixture Two or more substances that are in the same place, but atoms are NOT chemically bonded.
Heterogeneous mixture can be easily separated (Example: trail mix, or a salad)
Homogeneous mixture evenly mixed, can NOT be easily separated (Example: Smoothie)
Solution When one part of the mixture is dissolved in another. (Example: Lemonade)
Conversion factor The ratio of an equivalent measurement is used to convert a quantity expressed in one unit to another unit
Scientific Method A series of logical steps that is followed in order to solve a problem
Kelvin The SI unit for measuring temperature
Evaporation the change of state from a liguid gas
Solid the state of matter that will hold its shape
Condensation when a gas becomes a liquid
The kinetic theory the higher the temperature, the faster the particles that make up a substance move
The Law of Conservation Energy a substance has the same energy before and after a change of state
Solid a state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape
Chemical change when new substances form, digesting food is an example
Mixture when the different substances in a mixture keep their properties
Iron is an element
Ions atoms that gain or lose electrons
Metals are most elements on the left side of the periodic table
Valence Electrons are elements that belong to the same group, and determine an atom's chemical properties
Sodium is an element that is an alkali metal
Metals are good conductors of heat
non metals most are brittle
Noble gases exist as single atoms rather than as molecules
Alkali metals are extremely reactive because they have one valence electron that is easily removed to form a positive ion
Atom's Mass Number is the amount of protons plus the number of neutrons
2Mg+02 ---> 2Mg0 magnesium + oxygen ----> magnesium oxide
The size of particles determines whether a mixture is a suspension or a colloid
Polar when a molecule that has partially charged positive and negative areas
Suspension a mixture that separates into different layers when you stop stirring it
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion action and reaction forces
an object that is accelerating may be slowing down, gaining speed, and or changing direction
an object is At Rest is shown by a horizontal line on a distance-time graph
Newton's 2nd Law of motion the acceleration of an object equals the net force acting on the object divided by the object's mass
Created by: ebickley