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2nd Semester Final

Earth Science & Astronomy

TermDefinition
Globular Clusters A spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite. Globular clusters are very tightly bound by gravity, which gives them their spherical shapes and relatively high stellar densities toward their centers.
White Drawf Is very dense: its mass is comparable to that of the Sun, while its volume is comparable to that of Earth.
Blue Main Sequence Star A main-sequence (hydrogen-burning) star of spectral type B and luminosity class V. These stars have from 2 to 16 times the mass of the Sun and surface temperatures between 10,000 and 30,000 K; as the highest surface temperature
Nuclear Fusion A nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus. This process is how the sun produces most of its energy.
Continental Drift The hypothesis that the continents move slowly over the Earth's surface and were once joined into one continent.
Decay of Radioactive Isotopes The heat that drives mantle convection.
Transform Boundary When plates slide past each other and crust is neither created nor destroyed.
Galaxy A cluster of billions of stars; vary widely in size and shape; typically much larger in size than star clusters.
Barred Spiral A spiral galaxy with a central bar-shaped structure composed of stars. Bars are found in approximately two-thirds of all spiral galaxies. The Milky Way is an example of it.
Irregular Galaxy A galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape.
Hubble's Law States that the speed at which a galaxy is moving away is proportional to its distance from us.
Proxima Centauri Is 4.3 light-years from Earth.
Crest The point on the medium that exhibits the maximum amount of positive or upward displacement from the rest position.
Trough The point on the medium that exhibits the maximum amount of negative or downward displacement from the rest position.
Wavelength is simply the length of one complete wave cycle.
Amplitude Maximum amount of displacement of a particle on the medium from its rest position.
Divergent Boundaries Where two plates separate
Convergent Boundaries Where two plates collide forcing the edges of the two plates upward.
Subduction Zones (Convergent Boundaries) Oceanic Crust (more dense crust) is being sent beneath the less dense continental crust.
Radiation The emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Conduction The transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Red Shift Happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
Star Clusters Groups of stars that formed together at about the same time; Open Clusters and associations have relatively few stars that are well spread out; Globular clusters are much larger and denser, and may contain more than a million stars.
P-Wave Or compressional wave, is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth in the same direction and the opposite direction as the direction the wave is moving.
Nuclear fission A nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts.
Supergiant Star Among the most massive and most luminous stars. They occupy the top region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram with bolometric absolute magnitudes between −5 and −7 with temperatures spanning from about 3,500K to over 20,000K.
Created by: atemple1