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Physical Science

Chpt 10 vocab for final

Static Electricity stationary electrical charges and the forces that they exert
Conventional Current the flow of positive charges through a conductor which is opposite to the flow of electrons
Direct Current flows in one direction towards a current
Electrical Circuit a complete path from a source of electrons through a conductor and back to an electron sink
Electrical Potential Energy the energy or work that can be done by charges moving between two points of different voltages
Electroscope an instrument that can detect electrical charges
Lightning Rod made of conductors and are attached to the highest point of a building
Leyden Jar a glass jug coated with thin layers of lead that stored electrical charges
Capacitor two layers of metal foil separated by an insulating material and sealed with an insulator that stores charge
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) a large vacuum tube screen that is used to display images that are said to be painted by electrons
Conductor a material that conducts electricity
Insulator a material that stops the flow of electricity
Semiconductor allow limited electron flow or conduct only under certain circumstances
Switch allows you to open and close a circuit by opening and closing the gap in the current path
Electrical Discharge the loss of static charge as electrons move to another object
Overcurrent Protection prevents currents in a faulty circuit from starting a fire
Law of Charges opposite charges attract and like charges repel
Lines of Force they align with the direction that the electrostatic force vector would move a test charge
Electrochemical Cells supply electrons raised by chemical charges
Electrostatic Force force stronger than the force of gravity that is between electrical charges
Electrical Induction the creation of a charged region on a neutral object when exposed to a nearby electrical charge
Electrical Dipole neutral molecules whose electrons have shifted to form positive and negative poles
Electrical Resistance the property of all electrical circuit elements that impedes the flow of current to some extent
Series Circuit only one path for the current to travel through
Parallel Circuit there is more than one path for the current to travel through
Circuit Breaker a switch that is manually closed , but automatically trips open if the current flowing through it exceeds the designated value
Short Circuit a location in an electrical current where the current bypasses a circuit's load to take a low-resistance path back to the current's source
Fuse a onetime use overcurrent protection device that breaks a circuit when its conductor strip melts due to current becoming too high
Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters a reusable overcurrent protection device that opens a switch when the pulsing, high current conditions associated with arcing are detected
Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters an electrical device that opens a circuit when it senses an abnormal path for the current to ground exists
Resistor an electrical circuit component whose specific purpose is to impede current flow or create a potential difference between two points in the circuit
Battery consists of one or more electrochemical cells
Circuit a complete and closed path around which a circulating electric current can flow
Generator converts mechanical energy from an external source into electrical energy
Electrical Current a continuous flow of electrical charges
Coulomb the SI unit for electrical charges
Ampere used to measure electrical current
Volt used to measure potential difference
Ohms the SI unit for electrical resistance
Ohm's Law when the voltage is doubled, the current is doubled; when the resistance is doubled, the current is cut in half
Created by: Giraffe Girl