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X-ray Film Process

Radiographic Film Processing

Four steps to film processing Developing, fixing, washing, drying
What is the sequence for processing a radiograph? Wetting, developing, stop bath, fixing, washing, drying
What is the purpose of developing? To change silver ions of the exposed crystals into metallic silver.
Name the two developing agents. Phenidone and Hydroquinone
Which developing agent produces shades of gray rapidly? Phenidone
Which developing agent produces black tones slowly? Hydroquinone
What is another name for developing agent? Reducing agent
Which developing agent controls the toe of the characteristic curve? Phenidone
Which developing agent controls the shoulder of the characteristic curve? Hydroquinone
What is the sensitivity center? A metallic conducting electrode through which electrons are transferred from the developing agent into the crystal.
Name the buffering agent. Sodium carbonate
Name the restrainer. Potassium bromide
Name the preservative. Sodium sulfite
Name a hardener. Glutaraldehyde
Name the sequestering agent. Chelates
What is the name of another restrainer? Potassium iodide
What do restrainers do? Restrict the action of the developing agent to only those silver halide crystals that have been iradiated.
What does a preservative do? Controls the oxidation of the developing agent by air.
What does the hardener do? It controls the swelling and softening of the emulsion.
What color does hydroquinone turn when it has been oxidized? Brownish
A lack of restrainer could lead to? Development fog
Chelates are also known as? Sequestering agents
What does an activator do? Neutralizes the pH of the emulsion and stops developer action.
What do fixing agents do? Remove unexposed and underdeveloped silver halide crystals from the emulsion.
The temperature of the wash water should be maintained around _____ below the developer temperature. 3 degrees C/5 degrees F
The dry-to-drop time for most automatic processors is ____. 90 seconds
Developer temperature must be maintained around _____. 35 degrees C/95 degrees F)
A grayish yellow or brown stain could indicate? Excessive fixation or use of exhausted fixer.
Grayish-white scum could indicate? Incomplete washing
Static marks are caused by? Static electricity due to friction between film and other objects.
Developer temperatures should be checked how often? Daily
The roller racks should be removed and cleaned how often? Weekly
The proper developer action will only occur in an _____ solution. Alkaline
The most common results of excessive developer temperature are: Decrease in contrast and increase in density
A solution that is capable of giving up negative ions (electrons) is classified as a? Reducing agent
Which developer chemical causes the film emulsion to swell? Sodium carbonate
The solution that is maintained at the lowest temperature of approximately 90 degrees F is the: Wash
During latent image formation, the concentration of metallic silver in the exposed crystal occurs in the region of the: Sensitivity speck
One of the common causes of processor jam up is the depletion of the hardener in the developer solution called: Glutaraldehyde
The solution that is maintained at the temperature of approximately 80 degrees F (27 degrees C) is the: Wash
The termination of development process can be accomplished by placing the film in a/an: Acid solution
The principal cause of oxidation in the developer solution of an automatic processor is the exposure to: Air
Single-emulsion film must be loaded with the emulsion ________ the intensifying screen. Toward
The emulsion is composed of gelatin in which photosensitive _______ ______ crystals are suspended. Silver halide
The silver halides used in radiographic film are? Silver bromide, iodide, and chloride
Small crystals = _________ resolution, ______ speed High, slow
Large crystals = ________ resolution, ________ speed Low, fast
_________ films are sensitive to all colors. Panchromatic
__________ films are not sensitive to the red spectrum. Orthochromatic
Large crystals + thick emulsion = _____ contrast __________latitude, and _________ resolution. Lower, wider, Less
Fluoroscopic spot filming can be accomplished with _________ roll film or __________ film chips. 70mm roll film, 105 mm
Film should be stored at a temperature of ______ or lower at all times. 20 degrees Celsius/68 degrees Fahrenheit
Humidity of film must be maintained between ___ and ___ percent. 30, 60
_____________ is the only solution dramatically affected by contamination. Developer
Contamination can occur if ________ drips into the developer tank. Fixer
Film should be dried in a temperature range of ___ to ____. 120 - 150 degrees F
Processed x-rays should be stored at about ______ and _____ humidity. 70 degrees F (23 degrees C), 60
The _________ __________ is designed to move a film through the developer. Transport system
The _________ ________ moves film down in and up out of solution tanks. Transport rack
The ________ ________ turns the film down into the next tank. Crossover network
The _________ _________ turns rollers Drive system
When damp film exits the processor, the cause is most likely to be the ________. Fixer
_____________ is the measurement of the characteristic responses of film to exposure and processing. Sensitometry
Either a _________ or a ____________ is required to produce a uniform range of densities on a film. Penetrometer, sensitometer
A __________ is an instrument that provides a readout of the amount of blackening (density) on a film. Densitometer
A __________ is a series of increasingly thick, uniform absorbers. Penetrometer
A _________ is designed to expose a reproducible, uniform, optical step wedge onto a film. Sensitometer
At 0.3 optical density, ________ percent of light is transmitted through film. 50
Increments of 0.3 changes in OD numbers represent a ___________ of opacity. Doubling
________ ____ _______ is the density at no exposure, or the density that is inherent in the film. Base plus fog
Radiographic film density ranges around _____ to ___. 0.05 to 0.10
The range of diagnostic densities varies from ________ to _________. 0.25 - 0.50
Film resolution is determined by the ____ of the silver halide crystals. Size
An _____________ relationship exists between film resolution and crystal size. Inverse
Film speed and crystal size are _______ ______. Directly related
Film speed and number of sensitivity specks are ________ ________. Directly related
Film speed and thickness of emulsion layer are _______ ________. Directly related
A change in density will affect contrast only when ______ or _________ the straight line portion of the D log E curve. Above, below
The toe gradient is calculated between ____ and _____ OD 0.25, OD 1.00
Latitude and contrast are _________ related. Inversely
High contrast = _____ latitude + _____ patient dose. Narrow, high
Low contrast = ____ latitude + ______ patient dose. Wide, low
Slow film = ________ patient dose. High
Fast film = _________ patient dose Low
Mismatching of film and screens often _________ patient dose. increases
______ sensitive film will not respond to most wavelengths emitted by rare-earth phosphors. Blue
______ is more sensitive to the entire range of phosphor emissions, including yellow-green wavelengths. Green
The speed of an imaging system depends on the __________ of the layer of phosphor or silver halide. thickness
Relative speed number are usually established at ____________ kVp, with ____ kVp preferred. 70 - 80, 80
Recorded detail, sharpness and resolution are measured as ____ ______ ________ line pairs per millimeter
Define matrix. Square series of boxes that gives form to the image.
Define pixels. The individual matrix boxes.
Define voxel. A three-dimensional volume of tissue.
Define noise. Random background information that is detected but does not contribute to image quality.
Image noise has an _____ relationship to contrast. Inverse
Window level controls _______ ________. Image density
There is a(n) ______ relationship between window level and density. Direct
Window width controls _______ _______. Image contrast
There is a(n) _________ relationship between window width and contrast. Inverse
Window width also controls _______ ___ _______. Visibility of detail
Resolution is controlled by ______ ________. Matrix size
Computed radiography is considered ________ digital. Indirect
Direct digital radiography are _________ systems. Cassette-less
___________ include those that use photostimulable storage phosphor imaging plates, charged coupled devices and silicon. Indirect systems
________ _________ systems directly convert incoming x-ray photons to an electronic signal. Direct acquisition
The most common phosphor with characteristics favorable for CR is ________ _____ ____ and ____________. Barium fluorohalide bromides, iodides
The latent image is actually created by energy transfer during ____________ ________. Photoelectric interactions
The smaller the pixel, the _______ the spatial resolution. Higher
The range response of the imaging plate detector to x-ray is ________. Linear
Images that are underexposed will show _______ ______________. Quantum mottle
If scan frequency and grid frequency are similar and oriented in the same direction, a _______ _________ will be observed. Moire effect
_________ ________ ________ acquisition systems directly convert incoming x-ray photons into electronic digital signal. Direct radiography systems
Define CCD (Charge Coupled Device). A photodector that is capable of converting visible light into an electric charge and storing it in a sequential pattern.
What is DICOM? System of computer software standards that permit a wide range of digital imaging programs to understand one another.
Quantum mottle (orreticulation) is caused by ______ _______. Low mAs
PACS integrates information from the ______ and ______. HIS, RIS
Created by: rad1958tech
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