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Chapter 26

35 definitions

TermDefinition
Metabolism The total of all reactions occurring in a living organism.
Metabolic rate The rate at which an organism uses energy while in active.
Basal metabolic rate The rate at which an organism uses energy while inactive.
Respiratory system The system of organs that obtain oxygen from the air and eliminate carbon dioxide from the body; in humans, the lungs, trachea, and other associated organs.
Lungs An organ that exchanges gases between the atmosphere and the blood.
Mucus A thick sticky substance secreted by the mucous membranes in the human body.
Pharynx The passageway between the mouth and the nose, esophagus, and larynx; also called the throat.
Esophagus An elastic tube that is located behind the larynx and that carries food and liquids to the stomach.
Larynx The short passage way that leads from the pharynx to the trachea; the sound producing organ.
Epiglottis A thin flexible flap in front of the larynx; folds over and blocks the glottis during swallowing.
Glottis The space between the vocal cords.
Trachea The tube that carries air between the pharynx and the lungs.
Bronchi The 2 branches of the trachea; function in carrying air to and from the lungs.
Bronchioles One of many tiny branches from the bronchi; carries air to and from alveoli within the lung.
Alveoli The microscopic sacs in which the exchange of gases takes place in the lungs.
Throax A body region between the head and the abdomen.
Diaphragm The muscle that separate the thorax from the abdomen in ,mammal and humans; aids breathing.
Digestion The breaking of food into smaller substances that the body's cells can use.
Assimilation The process by which living cells convert nutrients into cellular structures.
Digestive system A group of tissues and organs that work together to digest an organism's food.
Mechanical digestion The process of breaking food into smaller pieces and mixing it with it with the digestive juices.
Chemical digestion Chemically breaking down food into substances that the body can use.
Alimentary canal The digestive tract.
Peristalsis A series of muscular contractions that moves food along the alimentary canal.
Accessory organs An organ that secretes substances that are carried through ducts into the alimentary canal.
Salivary glands A digestive gland that secretes saliva into the mouth.
Saliva The watery fluid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands that moistens foods and begins starch digestion.
Chyme The semiliqiud mixture of digestive juices and partly digested food in the stomach and small intestine.
Small intestine The digestive organ in which most of the digestion and absorption of food occurs.
Vili Microscopic finger-like structures that line the wall of the small intestine.
Large intestine The part of the digestive tract that extends from the end of the small intestine to eh anus; absorbs water and minerals.
Bile A substance secreted by the liver; helps to regulate substances in the blood, and stores minerals and vitamins.
Liver The organ that produces bile helps to regulate substances in the blood, and stores minerals and vitamins.
Portal vein The blood vessel that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver.
Calories(Cal) A unit used to indicate the amount of energy released from food during cellular respiration.
Created by: yoceli